Corn sugar and blood and the rise and fall of the Cleveland Mafia

Chapter I

The “Great Angel” and the death of the Cleveland Mafia

In 1983, Angelo Lonardo, 72, a one-time head of the Cleveland Mafia, turned into a government informant. He shocked family, friends, law enforcement officials, and especially criminal associates, with his decision after being sentenced to life plus 103 years for drug and racketeering convictions. The sentence followed a monumental investigation by local, state and federal agencies that only wiped out the Cleveland mob.
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The “Big Angel” as he was called, was the most ranked mobster. He testified at the Las Vegas casino in 1985 at the skimming of the Kansas City trials and in 1986 at the New York Mafia’s “ruling committee”. Many of the country’s largest mafia leaders have been convicted as a result of these trials.
During his testimony, Lonardo recounted that at the age of 18 he took revenge for his father’s murder by killing the man believed to be responsible. He further testified that after that murder, he was responsible for the murders of several Porrello brothers, his father’s business rivals during Prohibition.

Chapter II

The Birth of the Cleveland Mafia

During the late eighteen hundred, the four Lonardo brothers and seven Porrello brothers were boy friends and other sulfur mine workers in their home town of Licata, Sicily. Nineteen hundred came to America in the beginning and eventually settled in the Cleveland Forest District. They remained close friends. Several Porrello brothers and Lonardo worked together in small businesses.

Clan leader Lonardo “Big Joe” has become a successful businessman and community leader in lower Woodland Avenue. During Prohibition he became successful as a corn sugar trader used by bootleggers to make corn liqueur. Big Joe provided quiet raw materials and raw materials to poor residents of the Italian district. They would make alcohol and Big Joe would buy it out by giving them a commission. He was revered and feared as a “padrone” or godfather. Big Joe became the leader of a powerful and vicious gang and was known as the “Corn Sugar Baron.” Joe Porrello was one of his wives.

Chapter III

The first bloody corner

With the advent of Prohibition, Cleveland, like other major cities, experienced a wave of rebellion-related killings. The murders of Louis Rosen, Salvatore Vella, August Rini and several others created the same suspects, but without charges. These suspects were members of the Lonardo gang. Several killings occurred at the corner of E. 25th and Woodland Ave. This intersection became known as the “bloody corner.”

By this time, Joe Porrello had left an Lonardos employee to start his own sugar wholesale business.
Porrello and his six brothers raised money and eventually became successful corn sugar traders based in upper Woodland Avenue around E. 110th Street.

With small competitors, sugar traders and swimmers, mysteriously dying of a violent death, Lonardos & # 39; business flourished as they gained almost monopoly on the corn sugar business. Their main competitors were their old friends Porrellos.

Raymond Porrell, the youngest of his brothers, was arrested by undercover federal agents for arranging to sell 100 gallons of whiskey at a barber shop owned by Porrello, E. 110 and Woodland. He was sentenced in Dayton, Oh. Workhouse.

The Porrello brothers paid the influential “Big Joe” Lonard $ 5,000 to get Raymond out of jail. “Big Joe”
failed in his attempt, but never returned $ 5,000.

Meanwhile, Ernest Yorkell and Jack Brownstein, self-proclaimed “tough guys” from Philadelphia, have arrived in Cleveland. Yorkell and Brownstein were mold artists and their furnished victims were Cleveland Clevelanders who laughed as the two found it necessary to explain that they were tough. The real tough guys didn’t need to tell people they were tough. After ridiculing the Gligesters of Cleveland, Yorkell and Brownstein took a “one-way ride”.

Chapter IV

Corn sugar and blood

“Big Joe” Lonardo in 1926, now in the midst of his wealth and power went to Sicily to visit his mother and
relatives. He left John’s closest brother and business partner in charge.

During his six-month absence from “Big Joe,” he wasted much of his $ 5,000 a week on Porrellos, who took advantage of a lack of business skills and the help of a disgruntled Lonard employee, John Lonard. Big Joe is back and business talks between Porrellos and Lonardos have begun.
They “invited” Porrelose to restore the lost clientele.

On October 13, 1927, “Big Joe” and John Lonardo went to Porrello Barber Shop to play cards and talk to Angela Porrello as they had been doing for the past week. When the Lonardos entered the back room of the store, two attackers opened fire. Angelo Porrello bent under the table.

The underworld of Cleveland has lost its & # 39; the first boss as “Big Joe” came down with three bullets to the head. John Lonardo was shot in the chest and groin, but pulled his gun and managed to chase the assailants through the barber shop. He threw his gun into the store, but continued to chase armed men into the street, where one of them turned and shot Lonard several times in the head with the blade of his gun. John fell unconscious and bled.

The Porrello brothers were arrested. Angelo is charged with the Lonardo brothers & # 39; murder. The charges were later dropped due to lack of evidence. Joe Porrello succeeded Lonardos as the “Baron” of corn sugar and later named himself the “cap” of the Cleveland mob.

Chapter V

Meeting in Cleveland

The trace of blood from saliva continued to flow with the numerous killings resulting from the Porrello-Lonardo conflict.

Lawrence Lupo, a former Lonardo bodyguard, was killed after it was made clear to him that he wanted to take Lonardos & # 39; corn sugar business.

Anthony Caruso, the butcher who saw Lonardos & # 39; the killers fled and were shot. It was believed that he knew the identities of the attackers and would reveal them to the police.

On December 5, 1928, Joe Porrello and his lieutenant and bodyguard, Sam Tilocco, hosted the first known major Mafia meeting at Cleveland’s Statler Hotel. Many major Mafia leaders have been invited from Chicago to New York, Florida. The meeting was transformed before it actually began.

Joe Profaci, leader of the Brooklyn, NY Mafia family, was the most famous of the gangsters arrested. Within hours, to the consternation of police and court officials, Joe Porrello brought together some thirty family members and friends who set up their homes as collateral for gangsters & # 39; bonds. Profession was fired by Porrello personally. There was a great deal of controversy over the validity of the bonds.

Several theories have been given as to why the meeting was convened. First, it was thought that gangsters, the local presidents of Unione Siciliana, a mafia-infiltrated immigrant relief society, were there to elect a new national president. Their previous president, Frankie Yale, was recently killed on the orders of infamous Chicago-based Al Capone. Second, it was believed that the meeting may have been convened
to organize a very lucrative corn sugar industry. It was also said that the men were there to “confirm” Joe Porrell as the “capo” of Cleveland.

It is reported that Capone, a non-Sicilian, was in Cleveland for a meeting. He left shortly after arriving at
a tip from associates who said the Sicilians didn’t want him there.

Chapter VI

Another bloody corner

As the power and wealth of Joe Porrell grew, the heirs and close associates of the Lonardo brothers became fierce for revenge.

Angelo Lonardo, the 18-year-old son of “Big Joe” with his mother and cousin, drove to the corner of E. 110th and Woodland, the Porrello stronghold. There, Angelo sent the news that his mother wanted to talk to Salvatore “Black Sam” Todaro. Todaro, now a lieutenant lieutenant, worked for Angel’s father and is believed to be responsible for his murder. In later years it was believed that he was in fact one of the attackers.

As Todaro approached to speak with Mrs. Lonardo, whom he respected, Angelo pulled out a pistol and inserted it into the standing frame of “Black Sam.” Todaro collapsed onto the pavement and died.

Angelo and his cousin have been missing for several months, reportedly hiding in Chicago out of the kindness of Lonard’s friend, Al Capone. It was later believed that Angelo was spending time in California with his uncle Dominick, Lonard’s fourth brother, who fled west when he was charged with robbery in 1921.

Eventually, Angelo and his cousin were arrested and charged with the murder of “Black Sams.” For the first time in the history of the Cleveland homicide, justice was done after both young men were sentenced and sentenced to life. Although they will serve, the judiciary will be in short supply as they will only be released a year and a half later after winning a new trial.

Chapter VII

Climb the Mafia Road

On October 20, 1929, Frank Lonardo, Big Joe’s brother and John, were shot to death while playing cards. Two theories were given for his death; that he had been avenged for the murder of “Black Sam” Todar, and that he had been killed for not paying his gambling debts. Mrs. Frank Lonardo, when we were told
her husband’s murder screamed, “I’ll get them. I’ll get them myself if I have to kill an entire regiment!”

By 1929, little Italian crime boss Frank Milano rose to power as the leader of his gang, “The Mayfield Road Mob.” Milan’s group was made up of the remnants of the Lonardo gang, and was associated with the powerful “Cleveland Syndicate,” Morrie Kleinman, Moe Dalitz, Sam Tucker, and Louis Rothkopf. The Cleveland Syndicate was responsible for much of the Canadian market being imported across Lake Erie. In later years, they got involved in the casino business. One of their largest and most profitable businesses was building a Desert Inn hotel / casino in Las Vegas. Dalitz would become known as the “godfather of Las Vegas.”

Joe Porrello admired Milan’s political organization, the East End Bipartisan Political Club, and, seeing the value in such an influence, wanted to network with the group. Milan refused. Porrello was later reported to have joined the newly formed 21st District Republican Club. He hoped to organize voters on Woodland Avenue while Milan did so on Mayfield Road.

Chapter VIII

More corn sugar and blood

By 1930, Milan had become quite powerful. He went so far as to claim part of a lucrative deal with the Porrello corn sugar. On July 5, 1930, Porrello received a phone call from Milan requesting a conference at his Venetian restaurant on Mayfield Road. Sam Tilocco and Joe Porrello, brother of Raymond, urged him not to go.

Around 2pm, Joe Porrello and Sam Tilocco arrived at the Milano & Speakasy restaurant. Porrello, Tilocco and Frank Milano sat down at the restaurant to discuss the business. Several of Milan’s assistants were sitting nearby. The atmosphere was tense when Porrello refused to accede to Milan’s demands.

Porrello reached into his watch pocket to check the time. Two of Milan’s men, probably believing Porrello was reaching for his gun, opened fire. Porrello died immediately with three bullets to the head. At the same time, a third member of the Milan gang fired at Tilocco, who was hit three times but managed to rush through the door to his new Kadiluk. As the attackers followed him, he fell to the ground, finishing with six more bullets.

Frank Milano and several of his restaurant employees were arrested, but only charged with suspected persons. Armed men were never identified. Only one witness was present at the salon when the shooting began. There was Frank Joiner, a vending machine vendor whose only testimony was that he “thought” he saw Frank Milano at a restaurant during the killings.

Cleveland’s director of security, Edwin Barry, frustrated by the ever-increasing number of homicides in the bookies, has ordered the closure of all known sugar depots. He ordered the police officer to detail every detail to make sure he was not ingesting or removing sugar outside.

Meanwhile, six Porrello brothers applied black silk shirts and ties and buried their most successful brother. The attentive double gangster funeral was one of the greatest Cleveland has ever seen. Two belts and thirty-three cars overloaded with flowers led the procession of the slain don and his bodyguard. More than two hundred and fifty cars followed with family and friends. Thousands of bereaved and curious spectators lined the sidewalks.

The underworld of Cleveland was tense with rumors of an imminent war. Porrel’s brother Vincente-James spoke openly about the erasure of all those responsible for his brother’s murder.

Three weeks after his brother’s murder, Jim Porrello was still wearing a black T-shirt while entering the food and meat market at E. 110th Street and Woodland. While choosing lamb chops at the meat counter, Ford’s touring car is her # & # 39; curtains pulled tight, slowly passing the store. Several rifles were fired and two shots were fired, one through the front window of the store and one through the front door.

Amateur gunners were lucky. Two pellets found the back of Porrelo’s head and entered his brain. He was rushed to the hospital.

Chapter IX

“I think we may be killed by all Porrellos”

“I think maybe Porrellos will kill us. I think they might kill us all except Rosario. They can’t
kill him – he’ll be in jail. “So Ottavio Porrello gloomily but calmly predicted the likely fate of him and his brothers as he waited outside Jim’s hospital room. Jim Porrello died at 5:55 PM.

Two local pet gangsters were arrested and charged with murder. One was released on probation and the other was released. Like almost all murders in Cleveland bookmakers, the killers have never seen justice.

Around this time, word spread that the Porrello brothers were marked for extermination. Survivors
the brothers were hiding. Raymond, known for his bold attitude and fierce mood, spoke as if his brother James had sought revenge. Raymond, however, was smarter and took active measures to protect himself.

On August 15, 1930, three weeks after the murder of James Porrell, Raymond Porrell’s home was razed in a powerful explosion. He had not been home at the time since he took his family and left home in anticipation of the attack.

Four days later, Frank Alessi, witness to the murder of “Big Joe”, Lonard’s brother Frank, was killed. From his deathbed, he identified Frank Brancato as the attacker. Brancato was known mainly as a supporter of Lonardo and suspected of multiple killings. Brancato was acquitted of Alessi’s murder charges.

Chapter X

In March 1931, Rosario Porrello was conditionally jailed from a London prison farm in Ohio, where he served one year for carrying a gun in his car.

In mid-1931, the national mob of “capo di tutti capi” (chief of all chiefs) Salvatore Maranzano was killed. His murder triggered the formation of the first Mafia national ruling commission created to stop the many murders stemming from conflicts between and within Mafia families and to promote the application of modern business practices to crime.

Charles “Lucky” Luciano was the committee’s chief programmer and was named chair. Al Capone of Chicago, Joe Profaci of Brooklyn and Frank Milano of Cleveland were also appointed to the commission.

In December 1931, Angelo Lonardo and his cousin Dominic Suspirato were released from prison after being acquitted of the murder of “Black Sam” Todar during the second trial. As he avenged his father’s death and (mostly) avoided it, he became a respected member of the Frank Milano Mayfield Road Mob.

The thirst for revenge did not satisfy the members of the Lonardo family. It was generally believed
that “Black Sam” Todaro encouraged and possibly participated in the murders of “Big Joe” and John Lonard. However, members of the Lonardo family believed that the remaining Porrello brothers, especially the unstable John and Raymond and Rosario’s oldest brother, nevertheless posed a threat because of
the murders of Joe and James Porrell.

On February 25, 1932, Raymond Porrello, his brother Rosario, and their bodyguard Dominic Gulino (also known by several aliases) played cards near E. 110th and Woodland Avenue. The front door opened and, in a rush of bullets, the Porrello brothers, their bodyguard, and one guard came down. Porrelos died at the scene. Gulino died hours later. The stranger eventually recovered from his own

Hours after the killings, Frank Brancato, with a bullet to the stomach, dragged himself to John & # 39; s Hospital in Cleveland, west side. He claimed he was shot in a street fight on the west side. Days later, Brancato bullet tests revealed he was coming from a gun found at the murder scene of the Porrello brothers. Although never convicted of any of the murders, Brancato was convicted of false criticism for lying to the Grand Jury for his whereabouts during the murder. He served four years after Governor Martin L. Davey changed his sentence from one to ten years.

In 1933 the ban was lifted. The bookmaker killings largely ceased as organized crime moved to other businesses. Angelo Lonardo continued his criminal career as a distinguished member of the Cleveland family, eventually emerging through the ranks in northeast Ohio in 1980.

In early 1933, in the wake of the tragedy of the large Porrello family, Rosario’s son Angelo, 21, was killed in a fight over a pool game in Buffalo. It was rumored that he and his uncle John were trying to get involved in the liquor business.




Programs have become an integral part of modern life. Everything from cash transactions to home appliances is here. But the app market is evolving like any other market. The emergence of decentralized applications or dApps has ushered in a new era in how we perceive software on our devices. As a result, dApps hosting infrastructure becomes a hot spot for developers to argue.

The market has already seen 2551 dApps created and used by 95,966 users daily. Transactions with DApps are over 4,418,078 markers per day and 11,741 smart contracts are involved in the process. First, the dApps market is already making $ 21,512,096 per day and is showing no signs of stopping despite the recent decline in cryptocurrency prices.

The increasing competition in the decentralized infrastructure market is largely driven by the introduction of new technical protocols, their unique technical advantages that simplify the development of dApps and the implementation of ideas and concepts that could not be implemented by Ethereum, Tron or EOS. . The lack of the necessary technology to deny blockchain flaws, such as network failures, low bandwidth, small transaction processing time, etc., is a major barrier to the increasingly popular and widely accepted logic of dApps. An alternative to classic applications.


In addition to the very popular Ethereum, Tron and EOS networks, there is another infrastructure that is becoming a viable alternative. The credit platform is one of those competitors in the industry that offers a new solution for dApps development.

The credit blockchain platform is a fully open and fully decentralized blockchain software protocol that runs on smart contracts for high-end software development.

Smart credit agreements are written in JAVA, one of the most popular programming languages ​​available to most programmers in the world, and are easily adjustable to meet a variety of needs. Apache Thrift technology is used as a platform to simplify the integration process with products developed in different programming languages.

It works


Loans are not only a platform, but also a full-fledged company that has publicly opened software for all its customers. Applicants can network, set up an operations center, and build their own products and services based on a credit protocol. To date, the Credit Protocol has developed more than 20 decentralized programs. The full list is available on the dApp credit card.

Projects such as 0XUniverse gaming dApps, Unlimited Tower, ExoPlanets, Royale Roulette, as well as Karma, Rere Bits and WandX projects currently operating on Ethereum, Tron and EOS protocols are considering moving their programs. Credit protocol for better performance.

Among the more interesting credit-based products is Crext Extension, an analogue of Metamask that acts as a browser extension to store cryptocurrencies and other markers and interact with credit-based products. Another dApp is CScheduler, a credit-based blockchain service that provides the ability to schedule smart contracts at a specified time or time. Among the popular dApps credit platforms is Dice, a blockchain based dice-based gambling game under the supervision of a random number generator.

Competition is progress

It is impossible to keep up with what has already been achieved, and the IT industry is the most advanced industry in the world, with hundreds of billions of dollars a year in applications and other products. The blockchain industry is collapsing in terms of capitalization as key players move to provide the infrastructure for its growth. However, key market trends are not intact and they are gradually leading to more advanced and advanced solutions.

The innovative nature of the credit platform has already made in its development and its protocol has attracted many IT industry developers and giants such as Lenovo and IBM. But the project team does not mean stopping at what has already been achieved and planning to build a $ 2,000,000 themed hackathon and accelerator program to support product development and demonstrate the capabilities of the platform.

If all goes as planned, you will soon see a large number of credit-based products on the market to help develop the project infrastructure and its toxicity. No matter the future events


Tips for romantic settings in New York

Do you want to make your love life more romantic when you go on vacation? Whether you’re looking for a honeymoon or a romantic getaway, adding a romantic touch and experience will help you both be in the mood for a vacation. So, I have some ideas and tips regarding your romantic time in a very populated city – New York.
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Carriage ride through Central Park – Horse cabana cabins located on the edge of Central Park are personified by romance. The rider, appropriately dressed in an imaginative gown and hoodie, will help you tuck in for a 20-minute ride through the park landmarks.
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View from the Empire State Building at night – At dusk you can watch the sun set over the city as a million lights go on its towers.
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Drink at the top of the tower – Order champagne and enjoy the scene and each other at the Art Deco Oriental Building, which offers unparalleled views of city lights and the East River from its terraces.
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Stroll through the cloister gardens – Far from the bustle of the city, this branch of the Met’s oasis is of serene beauty, a chance for glory into the past as it plans for the future.
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These gardens are home to more than 250 species of plants grown in the Middle Ages. The gorge of the trie contains plants shown in unicorn tapestries.
Brooklyn Bridge Walk – A classic experience, walking across the Brooklyn Bridge provides exciting vistas of the city’s skyscrapers through intricate cable work. Bring your camera to capture unparalleled views.
Stay in the perfect place – You should choose the best place for an important trip, especially with your lover. There are more than 135 hotel choices in New York City


Taunton – A true English experience

Religious and military unrest have always defined the state of the nation and England is no different. The English Empire once boasted dominance over half the world, but despite this mix of innumerable cultures, the English way of life has stood the test of time.
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Real & # 39; England is preserved in numerous counties and there is no better place to begin to immerse yourself in the history of England than Taunton, which preserves the oldest traditions within its barefoot, while the 21st century gladly accepts open arms.
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This charming county is named after a town on the Tone River. The Taunton name has become a corruption of the abbreviated name Tone Town & # 39 ;. The structural history of this city is as old as history itself, because it was an important place during the reign of Saxons around 700 AD, and the city changed hands and rulers quite often over the next few centuries.
The fantastic Taunton Castle was built around 1107 in the traditional style of Norman ramparts, though it slowly went into ruin and finally completed some much-needed repair during the 17th century civil war.
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This serene county in the lap of nature also witnessed some bloody battles and conflicts during the 15th century, although precautions were also taken during World War II when it served as a stop line in the event of German aggression and several boxes were still scattered . everywhere.
Mainly because of these turbulent times, Taunton disappeared and required the proper attention of the authorities. It was subsequently declared a strategically important city.
and has received sufficient funding for various redevelopment projects to maintain the city as one of the major centers of business and culture. These efforts have not disappeared in vain and Taunton has become a hub for domestic and international tourism traffic in the Southwest.
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If fascinating history alone is not enough motivation for you to visit, what about architecture? Taunton is home to many religious sites, which are magnificent examples of architecture at its dizzying heights.
Mary Street Chapel and St. Mary’s Church of James are just two of the many ornate buildings that boast intricate wood and stone work, which will leave any visitor in awe.
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For sports fans, the city is home to many clubs and teams for the various sports and spectacular matches of football, cricket, basketball, etc. that are held every day.
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You need a break from the hectic tour schedule – going to any public parks and parks in and around Taunton, including Goodlands Park, Vivary Park and Victoria Park.
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The most famous is Victoria Park, which has fountains and architecture from the early 20th century in a well preserved state. Thousands of flowers, trees, birds and squirrels add relaxation to an already enjoyable experience.
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Taunton may not be as popular as some other tourist destinations in England, but rest assured – once you visit the city you will never be able to forget its incredible long history and rustic charm that exudes.


Why visit North West London

If you are planning to visit north west London, there are some sites that you need to add to your travelogue. They range from beautiful and imposing abbeys to serene gardens and villages and museums where time still stands amidst historically inclined and ingenious art collections.
In the heart of the city is London’s northwest abbey. Since the 15th century, this building has Gothic architecture with vaulted ceilings and stained glass windows. This remarkable building stands on Kingston buildings.
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Also the Beckford Tower was built by architect William Beckford, another very interesting place to visit. This building was erected in 1827 to be used as a banquet by the architect himself.
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He also intended the tower to be his library and as a vacation home, where he could spend time studying his collection of rare arts and books. This place is amazing for photography, and you can actually climb the winding staircase and look out over the city outline.
Another really good place to visit while in north west London are the Bowood Gardens in Calne. This piece of beautiful scenery was built by Capability Brown in the 18th century and extends to nearly 2000 acres of land. There are certain unique features such as a snake lake, desert, hermitage, Doric temple and cascade. This soil is the perfect place for you and your family to pack food and enjoy a picnic.
On the turn off the M4 and near the southern border of Cotswold is the perfect small village of Castle Combe. It is the home of the Blanket brothers who, according to legend, have given the English dictionary a new word as they discovered the method of heating during the harsh cold nights of winter.
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Once your plan is in place, then you need to figure out places to stay. North West London offers all its tourists and visitors several types of accommodation, from lavish to small budget, there is room for everyone. There are luxury hotels like Landmark London and Dorset Square to choose from for those who want a budget hotel, there are the modest Golders Green Hotel, Hendon Park Hotel and the Millennium Lodge.
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While staying in the area, you can do all kinds of activities such as going to the cinema with your family to see how Everyman Hampstead performs in one of the oldest movie theaters, or you can try the art-house cinema experience at the tricycle theater.
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You can visit dance theaters to experience an evening of watching professionals dance to the blue foliage, or also visit the art galleries located on each corner. You can take your children to the London Zoo or visit the Kentish Town Farm.

You can also enjoy the night of the Klapa Palace at the Camden Palace or the Electric Hall.

Everything you ever wanted to know about New York without mistake

The "New York Comprehensive Auto Insurance Act," which most people refer to as a "no-fault statute," was enacted in 1973 and went into effect the following year. The purpose of the bill was to limit the amount of personal injury claims caused by road accidents, as many politicians had this agenda on their platforms.

The error-free statute was revolutionary by providing immediate payment for medical care, lost earnings and other reasonable pocket expenses incurred as a result of motor vehicle accident injuries. The law provides that these costs must be paid up to $ 50,000 per person. These payments are what are known as "first party benefits" or "basic economic loss." The reason it is called error free is because these payments are made regardless of the error. If you lose control of your car and get stuck in a tree, you still get these payments.

If your medical bills, lost earnings, and / or expenses out of your pocket are more than $ 50,000, you can still sue the party who caused you injuries for these extra amounts (as well as for your pain and suffering.) If your injuries are " seriously "and caused by the negligence of another, you can still file a lawsuit. It does not cover property damage without error, so you still need to sue for damage to your car unless you carry "collision" or "full coverage" for your vehicle.


"Unauthorized benefits are insured for economic loss arising from the use or operation of a motor vehicle (Insurance Act Section 5103). Section 5102 defines a motor vehicle as" all vehicles on the highway accept motorcycles. "motorcycles were deliberately excluded due to the frequency of accidents, which would make motorcycle insurance much more expensive.

You are insured against faultless insurance and therefore the statute calls "covered person" if you are an insured person, driver or passenger in a vehicle or a pedestrian injured by vehicle operation. If you are not an insured and your car insurance is not in force, you would be covered for the “first side” of the no-fault fee under any car insurance policy in your household. For example, if your adult child in your home were a car, it would cover you. If there is no "home car", there is a government fund called the Motor Vehicle Accident Compensation Corporation (MVAIC) that would provide error-free benefits.

There are some exceptions that you should be aware of. First, there must be an accident. Failure to provide benefits will not pay off if the injury was caused by a deliberate act. Most insurance policies disclaim intentional acts, non-infringements, and other types of claims. For example, you would not expect your homeowners to have to pay for the damage you caused because you no longer loved your carpet, so you inked it. Similarly, if someone intentionally jumps into your car, insurance will not cover the loss. Fortunately, things like this don't happen very often!

You are also not covered if you are "in employment". This applies, for example, if you drive a taxi, work as an ambulance assistant, or are on a sales call. In most cases, workers' compensation pays somewhat similar benefits, which will be covered in another article.

If you are a driver and you are driving under the influence, you will not be compensated for the benefits, but will be paid to the passengers or pedestrians you have injured. Not surprisingly, if you were injured while committing a crime or when seeking to evade law enforcement, no compensation will be paid. Cover will also not be afforded if you operate a vehicle that is known to have been stolen.

So the downside is that you are automatically entitled to medical expenses and many other things if you are involved in a car accident, except for the exclusions mentioned above. The downside is that in order to have a claim for "wrongdoing" for negligence against an operator who caused you injuries, you must have what the law defines as "serious injury". I will explain this in more detail in this article.


Section 5102 of the Insurance Act defines it as $ 50,000 per person for:

All necessary expenses incurred for medical and related services, therapy, certain non-medical treatments adopted by the religious method and other professional health services until their occurrence is established within one year of the injury;

The loss of earnings and the reasonable and necessary expenses incurred in acquiring services in lieu of such such persons would result in income, up to $ 2000 per month, within three years;

All other reasonable and necessary expenses incurred up to $ 25 per day for not more than one year after the accident.

The first paragraph describes the types of medical treatment that are covered. Non-medical treatments may include acupuncture and some other holistic therapies, but I would not risk advocating for "religious" treatments that are not widely known. Fee payments are on a “fee schedule” and treatment by medical professionals cannot charge a higher fee, which makes it challenging to find physicians who are willing to accept nonpayment. Most chiropractors and physical therapists are happy to accept this, but answers like orthopedic doctors, neurologists and plastic surgeons are hard to come by.

The second paragraph allows for the payment of provable lost earnings due to an accident. If you are self-employed, you can file tax returns to show a loss of income. You usually need to submit three years of tax return – the two previous years showing what you usually earn and the year in which the accident occurred show that you made less. If you need to hire someone to replace you temporarily, such as someone who will drive your taxi when you own the locket, the amount you pay to the replacement driver may be reimbursed. Obviously, if you work "off the books," you cannot claim compensation for lost earnings.

The third paragraph offers a small amount of money that is commonly used to reimburse taxis for medical treatment and similar expenses. You can also get a household assistance fee if you are unable to care for your children or take care of your home (but only $ 25 per day). There is an option to buy an additional $ 25,000 after you have exhausted $ 50,000, but very few people choose to buy this extra coverage. Your unauthorized insurance coverage will, under some circumstances, cover you even for accidents that occur in other states.


The request for non-compliance must be submitted to the insurance company within thirty days of the accident. All requests must be submitted within 180 days of delivery. Most insurance companies will pay the fee immediately. Issues may arise regarding the adequacy of the evidence submitted, which may delay payment. Insurance companies will sometimes claim that treatment is not medically necessary and withhold payment, in which case the doctor may arbitrate that denial or sue the insurance company for payment of the bill. It is worth discussing with medical professionals who are willing to do these arbitrations rather than end up being liable for payment or a lien on your case should the insurance company refuse to pay. The insurance company also has the right to see you by the doctors they hire to determine if your treatment is needed. Eventually, as your injuries improve, an hired doctor at an insurance company will "deny" your medical treatment as it is no longer needed, which can be arbitrated or judged by a medical professional who treats you.


The "serious injury" threshold is defined in §5102 (d). Damage to pain and suffering can only be compensated if the claimant retains injuries resulting in:

Death; or

Dismemberment; or

Fracture; or

Significant disparagement; or

Fetal loss; or

Permanent loss of use of a body, member, function or system; or

Permanent consequential restriction on the use of bodily function or system; or

Significant limitation on the use of bodily function or system; or

Medically established injury or damage of an unstable nature, which prevents the injured party from performing substantially all of the material, acts that constitute the usual or ordinary activities of such person for at least 90 days during the 180 days immediately following the occurrence or injury.

The first two categories are obvious. Fractures are displayed on the x-ray and will always meet the threshold of serious injury, no matter how minor. A hair fracture on the left pink toe will be sufficient even if no treatment is required and there is no disability. Significant denigrations are less clear. It is usually the cuts and scratches on the face or other visible parts of the body that result in "scars" and whether or not the remaining traces are actually an eclipse. Case law explains that a scar must be so unattractive that the person is the target of "pity and disparagement." A label that must be "highlighted" will not meet the threshold.

With the loss of the fetus, it must be proven that the miscarriage was actually caused by an accident. It would not be likely to claim that the miscarriage was caused by a minor impact, especially if the woman did not immediately seek treatment for any injuries and lost her baby after a month.

The sections of "permanent loss" and "significant restriction" were supposed to cover paralysis or other serious losses of use, but they developed into much less serious damage such as tears of the ligaments and hernias on the neck and back. There must always be objective evidence, such as an MRI and reports from physicians to substantiate these claims, subjective claims of pain are never sufficient to meet the threshold of serious injury.

The threshold is met when an injured person loses more than 90 days of work due to injuries. Work times need not be instantaneous and need not be consecutive. For example, a person might be out of work for a month after an accident, try to go back to work, be out again, go back, do surgery and be out again to recover. As long as the first 180 days total more than 90 days, it meets the threshold of serious injury until the doctor confirms that you really couldn't work. It's not impossible, but it's much harder to qualify for this program without a full-time job, but there are some circumstances in which this might apply. For example, a home-grown manufacturer with young children may not be able to provide care and needs child care, losing 90 of the 180 usual activities.

Mafia – Carlo Gambino

He was a quiet man who dressed unnoticed and was known to never lose his rest. But no doubt Carlo Gambino, with his huge hawk nose and enigmatic smile, was one of the most powerful mob bosses of all time.

Gambino was born in Palermo, Sicily on August 24, 1902. The Palermo area, called Caccamo, in which Gambino grew up, had such an intense mob presence, police and even the military were afraid to enter his domain area. This left Mafioso to rule the area with impunity, knowing everything they did would not be reported to the police, if the police were concerned at all about what had happened there.

Carlo's mother's maiden name was Castellano, and she used the influence with her family, who were Mafiosos, to introduce Gambino to "Men of Respect" when Gambino was barely a teenager. Gambino, who was a little built and only 5-foot-7, quietly impressed his superiors with his composure, intellect, and ability to do what he needed to do, even if it meant killing someone he needed to kill.

In 1921, just before his twentieth birthday, Gambino was rewarded for his good deed by introducing himself to the Mafia, or what was known in Italy as the "deserved society." However, because of Benito Mussolini's vendetta against the Mafia (Mussolini arrested many mobs, including top Mafia boss Don Vitus Casci Ferro, sentenced to life in prison), many Mafioso, including Gambino, decided that Sicily was too dangerous to exist the way they used to. As a result, there was a huge Mafios exodus to that mountain of gold across the Atlantic Ocean called America.

In late 1921, Gambino left Sicily on the Vincenzo Florio freight bridge, which was sent to America. Gambino's entire voyage claimed only wine and anchovies, which, apart from olive oil, were the only nutrients on board.

SS Vincenzo Florio landed in Norfolk, Virginia on December 23, 1921 and landed Gambino as an illegal immigrant. Wearing a three-piece suit and a black fedora, Gambino walked the gangplank looking for a car, they told him that when he left for Palermo, he would wait for him when he boarded America, with flashing lights at the end of the dock. , Gambino spotted a Castellano native sitting behind the wheel. The two men hugged and in a matter of seconds headed for New York.

When Gambino arrived in New York City, he was pleased to discover that his Castellano relatives had already rented an apartment on Navy Street in Brooklyn, near the waterfront. They also appointed Gambino to work for a transportation company owned by his first cousins ​​Peter and Paul Castellano. Soon Gambino got into an illegal bookmaking business, run by his Palermo counterpart Tommy Lucchese. The ban was enacted by the passage of the Volstead Act of 1919, which prohibited the manufacture, sale or transport of alcoholic beverages, but not their consumption. The matter led to another, and soon Gambino was the main gear on the crew of Joe "Chief" Masseria, the most powerful mobster in America.

However, another Mafioso escaped Mussolini's anger and arrived in America in the mid-1920s. His name was Salvatore Maranzano, the second in command of Don Vitu Cascio Ferro in Sicily. Maranzano concluded that the Sicilian Mafioso was much better than those in America, so it was natural that he should become the top mafia boss in America. This did not sit well with Masseria, and the result was the Castellammarese War, which flooded the streets of New York with many dead bodies from 1929-31.

Masseria MPs were soon joined by top mafia men like Lucky Luciano, Frank Costello, Albert Anastasia and Vito Genovese, who were well-connected with Jewish gangsters Meyer Lansky and Bugsy Siegel. However, since Masseria did not like his men to do business with non-Sicilians (Costello, real name Castiglia, was from Calabria), Luciano, Costello, Anastasia and Genovese laid down their time, hoping that maybe Masseria and Maranzano would to kill off, so that younger men can take control of all their operations.

However, it was Gambino who made the first step in rectifying this situation. Feeling that he was on the losing side of the battle, Gambino secretly approached Maranzan and offered to jump to Maranzan's side. Maranzano readily agreed, and soon Luciano, Costello, Anastasia and Genovese wanted to join Maranzano's forces. Maranzano accepted their offer, provided that they part ways with Masseria once and for all. That task was accomplished on April 15, 1931, when Luciano lured Masseria to Nuova Villa Tammaro Restaurant on Coney Island. As Luciano went to the bathroom, Siegel, Genovese, Anastasia, and the Jewish killer Red Levine stormed through the front door and filled Masseria with lead, making him pretty dead and ending the Castellammarese war.

Maranzano immediately called for a meeting all the top Mafioso in the city (reportedly over 500 people) to a warehouse in the Bronx. At this meeting, Maranzano said, "Whatever has happened in the past is over. There is no more hatred among us. Those who lost someone in the war must be forgiven and forgotten."

Maranzano then founded five families, each with a boss and an assistant. Under two top men, each family would have captains or captains who would rule the rest of the family: soldatos or soldiers. The five bosses were Joe Bonanno, Joe Profaci, Lucky Luciano, Tommy Lucchese and Vincent Mangano. Albert Anastasia became Mangano's commander, and Carlo Gambino – captain in Mangano's family. Of course, Maranzano made himself "the boss of all bosses" (Capo Di Tutti Capi), who did not sit well with the rest of the young Mafioso.

Despite all the pretty stories of "no more hatred among us," Maranzano had a secret plan to kill Luciano, Genovese, and Costello – men whom Maranzano thought were ambitious and a threat to his rule. Maranzano summoned sinister Irish killer Vincent "Mad Dog" Cole to eliminate his perceived competition. Maranzano paid Cole $ 25,000 on the spot and an additional $ 25,000 after the dirty work was done. To set the trap, Maranzano invited Luciano, Genovese and Costello to his office in Midtown Manhattan.

However, Luciano caught the plot via an informant close to Maranzano, who is believed to be Tommy Lucchese. Instead of showing up at Maranzano's office, Luciano sent four Jewish killers to a proposed meeting, led by Red Levine, one man who left Masseria. The four men, posing as detectives, bulldozed past the Maranzan bodyguards in an outside office. They then exploded into Maranzan's office, where he was kicked and killed. On their way out of the building, four murderers ran into "Mad Dog" Kol. They told him not to bother – Maranzano was dead and police were on their way. Cole dealt his face, whistling a happy tune, earning $ 25,000 in payouts without firing a single shot.

Luciano soon called the bosses of the other four mafia families and told them that Maranzano was eliminating the title "Boss of all bosses." Luciano then formed the National Crime Commission, which included Jewish mobsters Meyer Lansky, Bugsy Siegel, and the Dutch Schultz.

Gambino, now firmly enlisted as a captain in the Mangano family, has become the biggest money-maker in the entire New York mob. And in the mob, money brings prestige.

In 1932, in money-filled pockets, Gambino married his first cousin, Catherine Castellano Carlo, and Catherine Gambino eventually raised three sons and a daughter. (Marrying a first cousin was common in Italy, not hated in the US as it is today. In fact, marrying a first cousin is illegal in the current majority, but not in all countries. Editors note: My grandparents for my 39 & # 39; were first cousins, married in Sicily in early 1900)

When the ban was lifted in 1933, Gambino was already ready to cash in on the now legal farming business, but he did so illegally. While Prohibition was raising the illegal sale of the Mafia, Gambino had planned days when he would know the Prohibition would end. To achieve his goals, Gambino cooked up as many illegal photographs as he could; in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and even in Maryland. When the ban ended and the price of alcohol blew through the roof, Gambino had the largest illegal liquor distribution system on the east coast of America. And since he was making the potion himself and paying no state taxes, Gambino was able to undermine legal distributors, thus making himself and the Mangano families a small fortune from the mid to late 1930s.

The onset of World War II gave Gambino another opportunity to earn even more illegal cash, through his war stamps with stamps. A war that is inevitable against both Germany and Japan, the United States Government on August 28, 1941, established the Office of Price Management (OPA), whose task was to print and distribute stamps to the American public. Without these stamps, people would not be able to buy gasoline, tires, shoes, nylon, sugar, fuel oil, coffee, meat and processed foods. Gambino thought the only way to get him to market stamps with rations for sale on the black market was to steal them in the end.

Gambino sent his best secure second-floor crackers and men to the vaults inside the Office of Price Management, so they showed up with hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of brands. When some low-level OPA employees realized that their laundry stole their meal stamps, they decided to make a contract, stealing them stamps and selling them to Gambin and his boys, of course, with a bargain. – underground prices. Gambino understood why we risk stealing meal stamps, with the potential to be caught. So he took the wrong offer from the OPA staff and started buying stamps with meals in them.

The beauty of this scheme was that Gambino already had a ready-made distribution network: its network of illegal beverage distributors. In October 1963, Mafia informant Joe Valachi testified before Arkansas Senator John L. McClellan, the investigative subcommittee on government operations, that Gambino had sent over $ 1 million in revenue in one trademark deal.

Being a smart businessman, Gambino knew he couldn't live a high life without reporting significant income to the government. So Gambino invested the money he earned from illegal jobs, estimated to be several million dollars, into legal jobs such as meat markets, pizza parlors, olive and cheese importers, customs companies, clothing factories, bakeries and restaurants.

By 1951, thanks to Gambino's incredible income-generating ability, the Mangano family was one of the most promising in the Mafia. The problem was that Mangano couldn't handle his subordinate Anastasia. Mangano was jealous of Anastasia's closeness with other bosses, such as Frank Costello and Lucky Luciano, who was in exile in Italy; a provision of a pardon agreement he received from the United States government after serving 9 years in prison on a convicted prostitution charge. Mangano physically attacked Anastasia several times, with a silly gesture, as the younger and stronger Anastasia easily beat her boss with her fist.

Rumors had it that Mangano was planning to kill Anastasia, Anastasia, with the blessing of crime boss Frank Costell, decided to strike first. On April 19, 1951, the body of Pier Phil Mangano, brother of Vincent Mangano, was found in a swamp near Sheephead Bay. He was shot five times in the head. When police investigating the murder tried to contact Vincent Mangana about his brother's death, they could not find a clue. Vincent Mangano's body was never found.

Within days, Anastasia sat down with the other bosses and explained that he had killed Mangana before Mangano could kill him. With the support of Costell, Anastasia bowed to the head of the Mangano family, and the name was changed to the Anastasia family. Anastasia made Frank Scalise and Joe Adonis their subordinates, and gave his captain Carl Gambin more people and more power within the organization.

However, Anastasia's reign lasted less than seven years. Anastasia continually hits her head with villainous crime boss Vit Genovese, who wanted to take all the rackets in New York, even if it meant killing the other bosses one by one. Anastasia received a terrible blow when his co-star Joe Adonis was deported back to Italy as an unwelcome stranger. Anastasia knew his days were numbered when, in early 1956, Frank Costello shot the head of Genovese journalist Vincent "The Beard" Gigante. Costello survived the shooting, and at the trial of Gigante, Costello, loyal to the mafia code "omerta," refused to name Gigante his attacker.

However, this greatly diminished Costello's power in the Mafia, and at Genovese's insistence, Costello was ousted as one of the Chiefs of Staff at the Mafia Commission. This left Anastasia without her closest ally, and put Anastasia in a vulnerable position. Shortly after, Frank Scalise's second husband, Anastasia, was killed while buying fruit and vegetables on Arthur Avenue in the Bronx.

The final shoe fell off when, on October 25, 1957, Anastasia was shot dead while sitting in a barber chair at the Sheridan Park Hotel in central Manhattan. With Anastasia now dead, Genovese called for a seat with the other chiefs and suggested that Carlo Gambino, whom he had let on his plot to kill Anastasia, take over Anastasia's family. The commission agreed and they renamed the family to the Gambino family.

The greedy Genovese called for a meeting of all the crime bosses, doubles, captains and respected Mafia men in America, scheduled to take place in the dormant city of Apalachin, New York, at the home of Joseph Barbara, the gateway to the crime family of boss Stefan Magaddin. There were several items on Genovese's agenda, but originally it was that Genovese would be declared "Capo Di Tutti Capi" or "Boss of all Chiefs", a title that had been vacant since the death of Salvatore Maranzano.

On November 17, 1957, a mob of mobsters headed to Barbara's house. The group includes crime bosses John Scalish, of Cleveland, Sam Giancan of Chicago, Frank DeSimone of California, Santo Trafficante of Florida, Gerardo Catena and Frank Majuri of New Jersey, and Carlo Gambino, Joe Profaci, Tommy Lucchese and Vito Genovese of New York.

However, before the festivities began, Sergeant Major Edgar Roswell, along with a dozen state troopers, burst into the house. Later, Roswell said he became suspicious when he spotted Joseph Barbara Jr. how to book a hotel for a dozen or more towels. Roswell said he then drove past the Barbara residence and saw a dozen luxury cars parked in and around Barbara. Roswell said he called for great support, and when his soldiers arrived, they set off.

Later, another rumor spread that it was Meyer Lansky, without a big fan of Vito Genovese, who secretly gave a tip to state troopers about the upcoming Mafia convention.

Either way, as troops stormed the house, Mafioso scattered like a Chinese fire on all sides. Men in expensive suits jumped out the open windows, and if they could not reach the car, they were pushed through the woods on foot, destroying their patent leather shoes. Giancana himself escaped safely by escaping through the forest, as did Bonanno submarine Carmine Galente. But both men were in disarray; their suits were destroyed by thorny bushes. Some cars moved away from the property before the roadblock was set up, but most failed. When she cleared the dust, 58 Mafia members were detained and told to empty their pockets. A total of $ 300,000 cash was found in 58 men, making state police increasingly suspicious of the meeting.

What was significant at the meeting were the men who decided not to attend. In addition to Lanski, those who were absent were Frank Costello, Carlo Marcello of New Orleans and Lansky, Jose Joseph "Doc" Stracher.

Of the 58 men, 27 were charged with obstruction of justice, of which 20 were convicted of refusing to answer the meeting's questions. One of the men convicted was Gambino's cousin Paul Castellano, who ended up in a slag for a year.

A broken meeting, more than anything else, led to the downfall of Vito Genovese. Not only did he not receive the sublime title of "boss of all chiefs", he became a mafia pariah; ridiculed as stupid and greedy for inviting so many important men to the same place for his purposes.

The day after the attack, entire nations published stories about the incident. People could no longer claim that the mafia did not exist. Police and FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, who have denied the existence of the mafia for years, went on a rampage, putting extreme pressure on the mafia's operations.

Although at first it seemed that Carlo Gambino was a victim of circumstance, the wise conspiracy veteran conspired to turn the incident to his advantage. In fact, it was speculated that Gambino knew about the attack beforehand and intentionally went there so that no one would suspect him of being in treason; which would make sense in light of further developments.

With Genovese still giving up on losing face, Gambino quarrels with Frank Costello, Meyer Lansky and Lucky Luciano (still in exile in Italy but able to move freely to Cuba to meet his friends) to get Genovese a multi-million dollar international drug deal. Although the mob forbade it from dealing drugs, the greedy Genovese couldn't resist the urge to make a ton of dough.

When the time came, Gambino informed the Bureau of Narcotics about the drug trade, which resulted in the arrest of Genovese. At the Genovese trial, Gambino paid a false witness named Nelson Cantellops, who insisted on the witness's position that Genovese was not only involved in this particular drug business, but was actually involved in dozens of narcotics over the years. . As a result, Genovese was sentenced to 15 years in prison. Genovese served a little more than ten years in prison before he died in prison on February 14, 1969.

With Anastasi dead, Genovese in prison, Luciano in exile, Frank Costello basically out of the mafia loop, Joe Profaci older and weaker, and Joe Bonanno out of a relatively small family of criminals, Carlo Gambino has undoubtedly become the most powerful mafia boss in America. His crew of over 500 performed men on the streets, including his subordinate Joe Biondo, consul Joseph Riccobono and capos Armand "Tommy" Rava, Aniello "Mr. Neil" Dellacroce, Paul Castellano, Carmine "The Doctor" Lombardozzi, Joseph " Joe Piney "Armone, and Carmine" Wagon Wheels "Fatico.

Gambino has expanded its businesses across the United States. In addition to New York, Gambino had his fingers in a pot in Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, Boston, San Francisco and Las Vegas. Gambino also ruled the powerful International Union of Long Crossings, which controlled all evidence in New York, the major port of import to America.

After Joe Valachi became the first known mafia informant, Gambino reinforced a rule that banned the sale of drugs on his crew. Gambino's rational was that the penalties for drug sales were so severe that men could become rats when arrested, rather than spend their time in prison like the real Mafia men did in the past. The Gambino family policy was "Deal and Die" and he enforced that rule without exception.

Riding on top of the mob, Carlo Gambino has become a popular figure in the streets of New York, small Italy. While the other chiefs barricaded themselves in their mansions, armed with bodyguards, burglar alarms and electrified fences, Gambino walked the streets with impunity, stopping conversations with old friends while buying vegetables and fruits from street vendors. Gambino went to Ferrara on Grand Street, between Mulberry and Mott, to make pastries. He would then walk the block to get his Italian meat, cheeses and Italian delicacies from Aleva at the corner of Mulberry and Grand.

Beginning in March 1970, Gambino began to have problems with the law. As he walked down Brooklyn Street, Gambino was surrounded by New York police and FBI members. They arrested Gambino and accused him of mastering a scheme to steal $ 30 million in cash from an armored truck company based in the Bronx. Gambino was eventually indicted, but the case was dropped due to lack of evidence.

That forced the Feders to try another tactic to remove the Gambins from the streets. The government issued a deportation order to the Gambino in 1966, but for some reason that order was never enforced. In early 1971, after Gambino's wife Catherine died of cancer, the Feders did indeed try to carry out this order, but hearing of his imminent danger, the cunning Gambino faked a serious heart attack. The Feds were furious with Gambia's craft, so the U.S. Public Health Service gave Gambia complete physical. The Feds were upset when it was determined that Gambino indeed had a severe heart condition. This was confirmed in 1972, when Gambino flew from his home at 2230 Ocean Parkway, Brooklyn, to Columbus Hospital in Manhattan with a massive heart attack. Why the Brooklyn hospital is not appropriate for the Gambino has never been revealed.

While recovering at home, Gambino broke one of the laws he set for himself – "Get drugs and die." Acting Genovese Chief Thomas "Tommy Ryan" Eboli approached Gambino with a "can't miss" proposal to broker a multi-million dollar drug deal with Louis Civill, considered by the Feds as the largest drug dealer in America. The problem was that Eboli, a former boxing manager and notorious bad gambler, did not have the $ 4 million needed to continue the operation. Gambino had seized four million dollars from Eboli, but he lost it all when the Feds arrested Civillo and confiscated his drugs and money. When Gambino approached Eboli for his missing $ 4 million, Eboli turned his pockets inside, showing that the apartment was broken.

The Gambino didn't enjoy it too much. As a result, on July 16, 1972, at about 1 a.m., Eboli was shot five times while leaving his girlfriend's apartment in Crown Heights, Brooklyn. Eboli died on the spot, and Gambino had enough influence with the Mafia Commission to order that his close friend, Genovese Captain Frank "Funzi" Tieri, now be the new boss of the Genovese family. And so it was done.

Gambino had another difficulty when his 29-year-old nephew Emmanuel "Manny" Gambino was bought out in early 1973 for ransom. The same gang had previously kidnapped Gambino crime family captain Frank "Frankie Wop" Manzo for $ 100,000. After that amount was paid for the safe return of Manzo, the gang became more ambitious about abducting Manny Gambino – this time asking for $ 200,000. Gambino tried to negotiate by offering them only $ 50,000. Shortly after, Manny Gambino's body was found sitting in a New Jersey landfill near Earle Naval's ammunition depot. On June 1, 1973, degenerate gambler Robert Senter pleaded guilty to manslaughter and was sentenced to fifteen years in prison. Senter reportedly remained indebted to Gambino and it was easier to kill Gambino then pay the debt.

After his nephew's death was overcome by the agony of his wife's death, Gambino became a witch at his home on Ocean Parkway. He surrounded himself with family members, the most famous of whom was Paul Castellano's cousin. By 1975, it was clear that Gambino's heart condition would not allow him to live much longer. So he began to plan his legacy as the head of the criminal Gambino family. Wanting to keep power in the blood of his own family, Gambino anointed his cousin Paul Castellano to inherit it.

This did not go too far with the other Gambinos, who expected longtime Mafioso Aniello Dellacroce to be the natural heir to the Gambino. To appease Dellacroce, Gambino gave him all the rackets in Manhattan controlled by the Gambino family. And it really was a great gift.

On October 15, 1976, Carlo Gambino took his last breath as his heart finally gave out. The Gambino funeral was one of the most developed ever held in Brooklyn County. More than 100 cars participated in the funeral procession that ended at Saint John & # 39; s Cemetery in Queens, New York City; his lifelong friend Charles "Lucky" Luciano is buried in the same cemetery.

In the 1985 film Prizzi of Honor, directed by John Huston and played by Jack Nicholson, actor William Hickey played Don Corrado Prizzi, a character based on Don Carl Gambino.

American Criminals: Murder Included

After the Castellammarese War ended in 1931, with both opposing bosses, Joe "The Boss" Masseria and Salvatore Maranzano ended up pretty dead because of the betrayal of Lucky Luciano, and among other things Luciano, along with Jewish Mafia Master Meyer Lansky, founded the Nine – Member of the National Commission for crime, which cut across ethnic lines. There was no head of this committee, but instead the leadership was split between Lucian, Lansky, Lansky and sophomore Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel, Frank Costell, Joe Bonann, Vincent Mangano, Joe "Adonis" Dot, Louis "Lepke" Buchalter, and his right-hand man Jacob "Gurrah" Shapiro. (The bad gun, the Dutch Schultz – real name Arthur Flegenheimer – was not a member of the Commission for this very reason: he was a loose cannon and could not be trusted in making sound decisions.)

Of course, all corporations need a division of power within that corporation, while certain people are given duties that do not impair the power and duties of other members of that organization. (Make no mistake, the National Crime Commission operated as a well-oiled machine and indeed operated as an unregistered corporation)

This is where Murder Incorporated comes into play.

It was decided that for the good of the National Crime Commission, sometimes shameful things must be done to make the Commission beautiful and profitable. This included the killing of people who threatened a steady inflow of money into the Commission's coffers. The commission has decided that they should establish a separate branch of the Commission, which is responsible for one and only one: the killing of those people whom the chiefs said must be killed.

Louie Lepke was in charge of what the press called Murder Inc., and to assist Lepke in the performance of his duties, the Commission appointed Albert Anastasia, aka "Mr. High Executive," as Lepke's right-hand man. He would never give Lepke a direct order to one of his killers to do the job. Instead, Lepke used trusted men like Mendy Weiss and Louis Capone to issue the final warrant and decree to select hits.

Holding a level or two of isolation between himself and the real killers, Lepke decided that nothing more could be directly attached to him.

And at first, Lepke was right, until he made one fatal mistake.

The first order of business for Lepke and Anastasia was to assemble a team that hit the cracks to do the actual dirty work. Through Louis Capone, who was close to Anastasia, Lepke cultivated a group of murder maniacs, some of whom kill fresh air from Brooklyn. These killers were called "The Boys of Brownsville." The Brownsville boys were hardly the only murderers employed by Murder Inc., but they were the foundation that led to a hundred freelancers being put on a steady weekly salary ($ 125 and up) to be prepared to kill when whatever order was given. These men were sometimes paid for a job well done and were allowed to work in certain territories in gambling and credit companies or in any illegal operation, such as abductions and even abductions. But one thing is for sure: even if a member of Murder Inc. he did not kill anyone for a month or two, three or three, and his pay for murder was constantly coming every week.

Now let's go to the Murder Inc. character scene

First and foremost, it turned out to be the biggest headache for Lepke: Abe "Kid Twist" Reles. With the elimination of three of the Shapiro brothers, Meyer, Irving and Willie, Reles, along with his childhood boy Martin "Buggsy" Goldstein, took over all illegal rackets in the Brownsville section of Brooklyn. To do so, Reles turned to help Harry "Happy" Maione and Frank "Dasher" Abbandand of the neighboring "Ocean Hill Hooligans." Soon such killers were cut like the likes of Harry "Pittsburgh Phil" Strauss, Vito Gurino and "Blue Jaw" Magoon tucked into the fold, and the Brownsville Boys really were an amazing group of killers. Key to their move from Brownsville to the big time was Louis Capone, apparently a Brooklyn restorer, who was very close to Albert Anastasia.

When the Commission, together with Lepke, entrusted the creation of Murder Inc., Anastasia approached Capone and said, "What about Reles and his Brownsville boys? Are these guys capable of doing what needs to be done? No questions asked."

Capone assured Anastasia that Reles and his killer boyfriends were cold on stone and efficient. The only problem Capone had was that Reles and Maione, thought to be group leaders number two and two, hated each other on the inside; and neither did they trust too much of each other.

Despite their small differences, Reles and Maione worked as a well-oiled killing machine. Murder Inc. Murderers under the leadership of Anastasia and Capone, they acted in a way that was almost dumb. When assassinations were assigned by bosses across the country, arrangements were made in such a way that finding out the actual killers was nearly impossible. The key to their method was the concepts of confirmation and division of power. The bosses brought in several men doing different aspects of each job, with one man knowing nothing about the other men and their involvement. Yet, every man so closely involved in the operation would be considered an accomplice, and his possible corroborating testimony was useless in court, should he ever decide to turn into a rat.

For example, let's say that Joe Schmoe of Illinois was next on Murder Inc.'s hit list Murder Inc. would hire one man to steal a getaway car. Then another man would be instructed to get as many weapons as needed for the job. Then there would be a third man, who would be a "finger" man: one who would point Joe Schmoe to the actual shooters. Then, of course, they needed the getaway driver and the driver of the "car crash" driver: a legitimately registered car that would crash into a chase after a committed car, or the car of a crazed citizen. The reason for the legal car was that the hit-and-run car driver could only claim that it was an accident while the shooters fled in the stolen car (For obvious reasons, it was not a smart idea to crash into a police car with a stolen car.)

The beauty of this routine was that any man involved in the murder would have limited knowledge of the other men involved in the hit. The man who stole the car would not know who bought the rifles or who actually shot them, etc …. etc ….

Of course, Lepke and Anastasia did not fully trust the Brownsville boys to do all their dirty work. Other killers were needed to do various jobs in countless places. One killer was taken from an unlikely place: the Loch Sheldrake Country Club, in the city of Catskills, in upstate New York.

The Loch Sheldrake Village Club was owned by Sam Tannenbaum, who first owned a grocery store on Orchard Street in lower eastern Manhattan. The Loch Sheldrake Village Club was the rhythm of the establishment, which housed many wealthy Jewish families for the summer vacation. Of course, Lepke and his crew were well represented at Loch Sheldrake. Those gangsters who cracked their elbows with legitimate Jewish businessmen include Lepke, his partner Jacob "Gurrah" Shapiro, Shimmy Salles, a racket bag for Lepke, Curly Holtz, a working lift and "Big Harry" Greenburg, who was Partners of Lepke and Shapiro in various scams Clothing Center.

Gurrah Shapiro, a thick-chested gorilla, was a character himself, and also quite capable, like Lepke, of pulling the trigger when needed. Whenever Shapiro was angry, which was common, his favorite saying was "Get out of here." Still, in his gravelly voice, the phrase sounded like "Gurra dahere." Therefore, his friends got the Shapiro nickname "Gurrah."

Sam Tannenbaum had a teenage son named Allie, whom Sam eventually completed as his replacement when Sam decided to retire. Tannenbaum himself employed Allie at his hotel, either waiting tables or setting up chairs on the beach by the lake. Sam also didn't pay Allie a dime for his work, to make sure Allie didn't disappear in his old haunts in lower eastern Manhattan until the summer season was over. As the owner's son, the Jewish gangsters invited Allie Tannenbaum to all their parties, and Allie got a fresh taste of what it was like to be around people who kept clinking their coins in their pockets. Because of this, the suspect is likely to be drawn into their world of murder and injury.

One day, after the end of the summer season of 1931 at Loch Sheldrake, Tannenbaum was walking Broadway in Manhattan when he ran into "Big Harry" Greenberg.

Greenberg asked Tannenbaum, "Do you want a job?"

"I could use it, if it pays off," Tannenbaum said.

Greenberg smiled. "This one's for Lepke. You know what the job will be."

Tannenbaum shrugged and said he would do whatever it took to earn some cash so he could spread around like his Jewish gangster idols.

Greenberg knew little about hiring one of his killers.

Tannenbaum started working for Lepke, initially for $ 35 a week. His job included general tasks like shooting, striking strikes and throwing stink bombs where they needed to be thrown. Later, Tannenbaum graduated from more important duties, such as "schlammings," which meant he was "broken," or cracked the heads of union workers who did not draw the Lepke line.

As his work output increased, so did Tannenbaum's pay. In short, Tannenbaum was intimately involved in the six murders and helped dump the body of the seventh homicide victim. As a result of the "bone gain" in the homicide department, Tannenbaum began engraving at an impressive $ 125 a week; more than he earned all summer at his father's resort. Because of the summer location of Tannenbaum in the city of Catskills, Tannenbaum's business consisted mainly of homicides and extortion in central New York. Tannenbaum was a valuable asset to Lepke in Sullivan County, as Tannenbaum was familiar with the back highways and numerous lakes, where bodies could be disposed of. During the winter, Tannenbaum and his family vacationed in Florida, where Tannenbaum worked as a strong-arm man at several gambling joints in Lepke.

In the early 1930s, Lepke added another valuable asset to Murder Inc. when he hired Charlie "The Bug" Workman.

"Beetle" was born in 1908 on the lower east side of Manhattan, the second of six children Samuel and Ani Workman were born. Workman dropped out of school in 9th grade and began wandering the streets of the Lower East Side, looking for trouble. When he was 18, Workman was first arrested for stealing a bundle of $ 12 cotton thread from a truck parked on Broadway. Since it was his first offense, Workman got away with a simple penalty. The following year, Workman was arrested for shooting a man behind his ear over whom he owed – $ 20. By this time, Workman's reputation on the streets was such, the man he shot refused to testify against him, and even said he could not truly identify Workman as the shooter. Officers got confused and took his file and concluded that Workman had violated probation for stealing cotton. As a result, Workman was sent to the New York state reformer. For the next few years, Workman was in and out of jail for such parole violations, such as being associated with "questionable characters" and "inability to find work."

In 1926, Workman joined the business as a free-kicker or schlammer to break the strike of the Lepka union. Workman did such a good job, in early 1930, Lepke put $ 125 a week on the permanent payroll as a killer for Lepke's Murder Incorporated machine. Lepke liked Workman's cool demeanor, and after Workman performed some remarkable "hits" for Lepke, Lepke gave him the nickname "Bug" because the person had to be crazy to kill with the quiet detached Workman who was shown performing his gruesome task . Workman's second nickname "Handsome Charlie" was given to him by members of the opposite sex.

For the next several years, Workman was in trouble with the law. In 1932, he was arrested for carrying a concealed weapon. In 1933, Workman was arrested again for determining off-duty police officer duty after minor dust in traffic. All this time, his specialty was killing the one whom Lepke said should be killed. After being hit, Workman reaped the benefits of "wiping the pockets" of his victims. Most of the time, Workman earned an extra thousand dollars or something for his efforts. And on one occasion, he even found in the pocket of his pants a bonus of ten thousand dollars of one poor boob he had just kidnapped.

Murder Inc. Adhesives did not restrict exploitation to the New York area. In fact, Murder Incorporated ended up hiring somewhere between 150-200 murderers across America, and it is reported that these murderers may have committed as many as 800-1000 murders from the late 1920s, until Murder Incorporated was killed. early 1940s.

Scandal with big rocking table

Nothing encourages the general public more than trying to charge something that used to be free. Yet that's exactly what entrepreneur Oscar F. Spate tried to do in New York Parks in the glittering summer of 1901.

It all began in Central Park on June 22, 1901, when a group of people spotted rows of bright green rocking chairs around the park's mall, near the casino. Usually there were rows of unsightly wooden solid benches in the same place, so the park was really a pleasure to sit and swing and enjoy on a wonderful summer day.

Suddenly, two wide-shouldered men approached sitting chairs. They wore identical gray suits and wore black shoulder bags over their shoulders. The gray men told the sisters that these were private chairs for rent, and that if they wanted to continue seating, they had to rent more than five cents a day for better seats and three cents a day for places not so convenient in the park. Some left their place, but others paid. People who were not physically kicked out of the seat. When asked why, the men in gray said, "Their Mr. Spate's chairs."

This new phenomenon was reported extensively and very substantively, in the days following the New York daily. And the man in the hot seat was the chairman of the park commission – one George C. Clausen.

A few days earlier, it appeared that a man named Oscar F. Spate had visited Clausen in his official Park Commission office. Spate acted kindly enough and offered Clausen that Clausen saw no difficulty in accepting her. Spate seemed to say he wanted to place comfortable rocking chairs in parks all over New York. And for the privilege of doing so, Spate offered the city a tidy sum of $ 500 a year.

"They do it in London and Paris," Spate told Clausen. "And it would undoubtedly be good for New York City."

Clausen saw no problem with Spate's thinking, so he agreed; but without first consulting with another member of the Park Commission. As a result, Clausen awarded Spate a five-year contract, allowing Spate to set up his rocking chairs at all New York City parks. Since his ink is still dry, Spate immediately ordered 6,000 chairs, each costing about $ 1.50. If Spate's projections were correct, these chairs would earn him $ 250 to $ 300 a day.

An associate of Spate, who asked the newspaper reporter for anonymity, said Spate had already invested $ 30,000 in his new venture. The journalist did the math and came up with rocking chairs that cost Spate only $ 9,500. Pray tell me, where did the other $ 20,500 go?

A Spate spokesman said nothing to enlighten the reporter.

"Well, there is always a cost in this kind of thing," the letterman said.

The New York press knew the story when it hit them in the face, so they were able to find Spate at his offices in the St. James Building, on Broadway and 26th Street, near Madison Square Park. Asked by a reporter, Spate became angry.

"I will set as many chairs as they will allow," Spate told reporters. "The cost-paying attendees pay me. They'll wear gray uniforms and each will take care of about fifty chairs, 10am to 10pm. A five-cent ticket allows the owner to sit at any five percent, or a three-inch chair in any park at any time during the day, but a three-inch chair holder can only sit in a three-inch chair.

Spate also told reporters that he was doing the city a favor because charging chairs would keep the unwanted (read – poor) out of the parks, while keeping the parks fresh and clean from lovers who leave a mess in their wake.

The outrage from the New York press and philanthropists came quickly. Randolph Guggenheimer, chairman of the municipal council, said he "saw no good reason to allow private parties to occupy parks and make money through a scheme like this." The New York Central Alliance sent a statement to reporters denying both Spate and Clausen about their "gruesome actions." The New York Tribune wrote in an editorial: "This is just another instance of the hopeless stupidity of the current Park Commission." The New York Daily also wrote an editorial defending "the rights of poor people to sit in a public park." However, the New York Times saw no problem in what Spate was doing, as long as "the prices were neatly arranged."

The park commissioner Clausen tried to defend his actions by telling reporters that there were always plenty of free benches that people could sit on, except, of course, Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays. The New York Tribune noted that these were the days with the highest demand for space in parks.

As this issue became monumental, Spate became more resolute. He ordered more chairs to be placed in Central Park, but also in Madison Square Park, which was across from his office. Some paid to sit down, and those who didn't, frantically threw Spate throwers in gray suits off the chairs.

Things settled down for a few days as few people protested paying for seats. All that changed on Wednesday 26th, 1901, when the outside temperature of the city rose above 90 degrees. By Saturday, the temperature had risen to 94 degrees and nineteen people had died in New York due to unbearable heat conditions. The temperature reached 97 degrees on Sunday, making it the hottest day ever recorded with the Weather Bureau since June 1871. Fifteen more died on Sunday, with two hundred deaths on Tuesday with two hundred deaths. There were 317 heat-related deaths Wednesday, totaling 382 deaths in Manhattan between June 28 and July 4, along with 521 hospitalizations for heat protection. In a total of 797 deaths and 891 heat rooms in seven days in the New York metropolitan area, which includes Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens and Richmond County. Things were so bad that on July 2, city ambulance hospitals worked 24 hours without any relief.

With the city in a heat-related heat, worried people rushed to the city parks, now ordered by the Parking Commission to stay open all night. When people arrived at the parks, they found that many free benches were gone, and those that were still present in the parks were moved into the sun, making them too hot to sit. However, Spate's green chairs sat beautifully in the shade, making them more appealing to people battling the murky heat.

On Saturday, July 6, the situation reached a key. The man was sitting in one of Spate's chairs in Madison Square Park and he absolutely refused to pay the five cents that Spate man Thomas Tulley had asked for. Finally, Tully pulled out a chair under the man and a flame ensued. An angry crowd surrounded Tully and began yelling, "Lynch him! He's a man of sleep!"

Tulley made his way through the hustle and bustle across the street to the Fifth Avenue Hotel, where he ran upstairs and locked himself in a room. The audience gathered in the lobby of the hotel for about 30 minutes, when officers arrived and escorted Tully out of the hotel, wherever he called home.

Later that day, while the heat was still falling on the passers-by, another Spate man evicted the boy sitting in one of Spate's chairs at Madison Square Park and refused to pay the required five cents. An angry crowd attacked a Spate man, and when a police officer tried to intervene, he was thrown into the park's fountain. A Spate man left the park in fear, and after doing so, delighted people began alternately sitting in Spate's chairs (no giving, of course). When dusk arrived, several people carried Spate chairs with them as trophies to decorate their living rooms.

The next day, on Sunday, July 7, the unrest moved to Central Park, where a huge crowd gathered in defiance of Spate and his green rocking chairs. While two of Spate's men guarded Spate's precious chairs, the audience marched diligently near the chairs, shouting the tune of "Sweet Annie Moore":

We pay no more!

We pay no more!

We no longer pay for the park

Chairs more!

Clausen paused

One summer a day.

And now it's not

Commander, no more!

As the crowd gathered in chairs, people who had already paid for seating were leaving the chairs and fleeing the park. One of Spate's men left work at the scene and also fled the park. However, another of Spate's people kept trying to charge for chair fees. But he also quit his job after an angry old woman stabbed him in the back of the neck with a hairpiece.

On Monday, July 8, Madison Square Park was the site of almost constant riots. A dozen or so boys walked from chair to chair, sitting as they pleased, accompanied by a rude crowd who threatened to hang any of Spate's men who tried to collect any compensation. A brave and stupid Spate employee named Otto Berman punched one boy in the face. Crowds besieged Berman and his life was saved by six police officers who threw Berman out of the park and saved themselves. Things got out of control at Madison Square Park, a police troop was called from a nearby West Thirtieth Street police station.

In the late afternoon, two men took two Spate chairs and offered a thousand dollars to any Spate men who could evict them from the chairs. Two Spate people jumped inside and tried to collect the prize, but two people who turned out to be world champion Terry McGovern, and a former fighter and then boxing ring, immediately beat him to a pulp. announcer Joe Humphreys. Police toured the park and arrested six rebels, who were handcuffed to Thirty Street Police Station. Police and arrested were escorted by a crowd estimated at 200 people, who marched in lockdown and sang:

You're sleeping! You're sleeping!

Clausen and Spate!

You're sleeping! You're sleeping!

Clausen and Spate!

On Tuesday, July 9, riots continued in both Madison Square Park and Central Park. But New York police took a different tactic when they were commissioned by Police Commissioner Michael Murphy to not assist any of the Spate men trying to collect a fee and arrest any of the rebels unless court orders issued arrest warrants for individual rebels. At this point, several judges told reporters that they would not issue any warrants, which gave the rebels an advantage (as if they were satisfied with Spate's chairs).

By this time, the chairman of the Parking Commission, George C. Clausen, was figuratively ripping hair from his own head. After first saying that he could do nothing about the situation without the permission of the rest of the Park Commission, Clausen then reversed and said that he, who confirmed the Spate contract, could also revoke Spate & # 39; contract with New York City. Spate quickly responded by getting an injunction "restricting Mr. Clausen and the Park Commission from interfering with his current contract with the City of New York."

In a state of despair, Spate ordered his men not to lay their chairs on the ground, but to pile them in piles at Madison Square Park and Central Park, and only hire them if they were paid in advance. However, as soon as someone rented one of Spate's chairs, members of the crowd grabbed a chair and broke it into pieces.

Soon the crowd, tired of Spate and his chairs, began bombarding Spathe's men with stones and stones, while Spate's men hid behind and under chairs, piled up in piles. Spate himself entered both parks to try to execute his contract, but both times he was forced to flee as they were chased by rocks and stones flying past his head.

Finally, on July 11, a hero named Max Radt, vice president of Jefferson State Bank, went before the state Supreme Court and got a restraining order against Spate and the Park Commission to accuse people of sitting in a green swing of Spate. chairs. Spate, realizing that the man had been beaten, immediately put all his chairs down. A few days later, Spate told reporters that he was "giving up his project."

Oscar F. Spate left his sight and never saw or heard him again in New York.

A few weeks later, a park commission issued a press release announcing that the chairman of the Park Commission – George C. Clausen – used his personal money to buy what was left of Green Spate. rocking chairs. These chairs were to be set up in parks throughout New York. Each of these chairs featured the letter "For the exclusive use of women and children."

And right above the declaration was the capital letter "FREE".

Mafia, gangs – Vito Genovese

The racket driver and future governor of New York, Thomas E. Dewey, called him "the king of rackets." And there is no doubt that Vito Genovese was one of the ugliest, most lovable and treacherous bosses in Mafia history.

Genovese was born on November 27, 1897 in the small town of Risigliano located in the province of Naples, Italy. He reached the equivalent of a fifth-grade education in Italy when he traveled to New York in 1913 to hang out with his father, who came to America a few years earlier. Genovese's family settled in the Greenwich Village area of ​​Manhattan, and soon Genovese worked for a young rising gangster named Charles "Lucky" Luciano. Genovese also became cramped with mob robbers such as Frank Costell, Joe "Adonis" Dot and Albert Anastasia. But he didn't particularly like hanging out with Jewish gangsters like Meyer Lansky and Bugsy Siegel.

The first time Costello introduced Genovese Lansky and Siegel as their partners in various criminal pursuits, Genovese said, "What are you linking to. Hit us with a bunch of Hebes?"

Costello said, "Take it easy, Don Viton? You're no stranger to yourself."

Due to the involvement of the criminal master of Lansky and the muscle provided by Siegel, the prohibitive era of the Fire Twenties was very profitable for Italian mobsters. They also joined Irish mobster Owney "Assassin" Maddan and his partner Big Bill Dwyer, known as the "King of Rum Runners," and was the largest distributor of illegal alcoholic beverages throughout the United States.

In the mid-1920s, the biggest Italian mafia boss in New York was Joe "The Boss" Masseria, a pig-headed bandit barely five feet tall who was said to be holding a "mastiff for choking" on the table. "Masseria took Luciano, Costello and Genovese under their wing, and Luciano put her as their second in function, or" Underboss. "The problem was that Masseria didn't like her people hanging out with anyone who wasn't Sicilian, especially mentioning Lansky, Siegel, Madden, and Dwyer. The Masseria did not favor either Genovese, who was from Naples, or Costello (real name Castiglia), who was from Calabria, but Masseria tolerated both men, for they were Italians after all. But Masseria would not have exalted Genovese and Costello if anything above all was a mere Mafia soldier, and this did not overlap with Lucian and his friends, Italian or otherwise.

1927 Benito Mussolini banished the Mafia from Sicily; imprisoning some and killing others. Salvatore Maranzano, from the vicinity of Castellammare Bay in Sicily, fled to the United States with another group of mob exiles. Maranzano's boss, Don Vito Cascio Ferro, was jailed for life by Mussolini and his police chief, Caesar Mori. Thus, considering that the American Mafia was inferior to the Sicilian brand, Maranzano decided that he would be able to retrieve all the rackets of Masseria and his cohorts without too much trouble. Or at least problems he couldn't handle. This led to what historians have called the "Castellaras War".

The mobster, who met Maranzano shortly after Maranzano arrived in America, later said, "When we arrived it was very dark. We were brought before Maranzano, who acted absolutely magnificent, with two guns tucked in the waist, and about ninety boys who were also armed to the teeth surrounding him. I thought I was in the presence of Villa Punch. "

From 1927 to 1930, Castellamarese's war raged throughout New York. Men were killed in front of and in front of the pool, Italian members-only clubs, all-day dining, bars and restaurants, and even in the streets as they exited their cars. The killers fired rifles from moving cars, roofs and tinted doors. When the dust cleared, 50 bodies were piled up on the streets, for which Luciano considered the wisdom of his affection for Masseria. Lansky, who was closest to Lucian, warned Lucian to "wait for the war. Let the bosses kill each other, then we can go in and take him over."

It is not clear who was first thought of this, but in the spring of 1931, Luciano and Lansky had a secret meeting with Maranzano at the Maranzano Central Office. At this meeting, it was decided that Luciano and his colleagues would switch sides to the Castellar War and return Maranzano. This, of course, meant drawing Masseria, which Luciano had nothing to do with.

Luciano thought the best solution was to seduce Masseria into a situation where the Masseria cartridge usually feels completely comfortable. And this, of course, went on strike at a four-star Italian restaurant.

According to Rick Cohen's beautiful book on the hard-working Jewish mob, Luciano asked Masseria on April 15, 1931, to dine in Brooklyn, far from the Masseria stronghold in Little Italy, Manhattan. Luciano told Masseria: "We're going to Scarpato in Brooklyn. Scarpato is repairing the sauce like in the old country, with shells and good olive oil."

The mere mention of the food caused a drool to drain from Masseria's lips, so he readily agreed to Lucian's request. The two men took Masseria's bullet-proof sedan from the lower east side of Manhattan to Brooklyn and sat down at a table in the back of Scarpato. In just a few short hours, Masseria ate more food than the average person could eat in two days. When his stomach was full, Masseria asked for a deck of cards so he and his best friend Luciano could play some poker.

Around 3 p.m., Luciano excused himself and entered the men's room. Seconds later, four men broke through the front door of the restaurant. They consisted of an eclectic group of Genovese, Anastasia, Siegel, and a very capable Jewish assassin named Red Levine. They reportedly fired 20 shots at Masseria; some of them actually relate to their intended purpose. Masseria was rolling on her back, dead as was the card she was holding. In the photos in the newspaper the next day, all that was visible was Masseria's right bloody hand, palm up, holding an ace of diamonds. From that moment on, mobsters regarded diamonds as a curse. Some even sent bags of diamonds to the enemy, warning him that he was about to join Masseria in that warm place downstairs without air conditioning.

With Masseria now dead, four assailants were rushing to the waiting car, with Ciro Terranov very nervous at the wheel. Terran was shaking so hard he couldn't bring the car into gear. Siegel angrily pushed Terranova aside and drove the getaway car himself. A few years later, Terranova was expelled from the port of Luciano as Luciano agreed with Siegel, Levine and Genovese that Terranova had no hose.

When Luciano finally left the men's room, he found several nervous waiters, bullet holes in the walls and tables, and a dead Masseria on the floor. When police arrived shortly afterwards, Luciano told the law he couldn't see anything because, "I was in the bathroom, I didn't hear anything."

Ever since the waiters clashed, and the police themselves have shown a strong aversion to Masseria, no one has ever been arrested for Masseria's murder, and it is doubtful that the police have ever sought his killer.

When Maranzano heard of Masseria's death, he was beside himself. Maranzano immediately named himself the winner of the Castellamarese War and the new Mafia boss. Immediately, Luciana made him his right man.

A few weeks after Masseria's death, Maranzano convened a meeting of every mobster in New York, reportedly over 500 men. The meeting was held at a large warehouse in the Bronx, near the Harlem River. At this meeting, Maranzano divided these men into five separate families of criminals. He named Lucky Luciano, Albert Anastasia, Tommy Luchese, Joe Profaci and Joe Bonnano as the five heads of these families. Maranzano also named each of the commanding families or "Underboss," and Genovese named the "Underboss" of the Luciano family.

Of course, Maranzano also called himself "the boss of all bosses," or "Capi de Tuti Capi," and this was not comfortable for Luciano and the other mafia leaders, who were tired of always ruling over them, taking a large chunk of their he asks.

Although Maranzano promised that his new organization, which he called "Cosa Nostra" or "Our Matter," would keep peace and well-being at the forefront of their operations, Maranzano felt completely different in secret. He immediately compiled a list of people he wanted dead because he believed their ambitions were a threat to his leadership. Luciano, Costello and Genovese were on that list. Maranzano invited Luciano, Costello, and Genovese to a meeting at the Maranzano midtown office. At this meeting Maranzano planned that Vincent "Mad Dog" Cole, a particularly evil Irish killer, would kill all three men. Maranzano paid Cole $ 25,000 in advance, with another $ 25,000 after the dirty deed.

However, Luciano had a mole in Maranzano's inner circle, allegedly Tommy Luchese, and Luchese gave Luciano directions. On the day of his intentional death, neither Luciano, Costello, nor Genovese were anywhere near Maranzan's office. Instead, Luciano sent four Jewish gangsters, selected by Meyer Lansky and led by Red Levine (who was also one of the shooters in Masseria's murder) to Maranzano's office. Four murderers posing as police detectives forcibly walked past Maranzano's bodyguards in the outer office and raided Maranzano's inner office, where they shot and kicked Maranzano.

The four killers were then rushed out of Maranzan's office, followed by Maranzan's former bodyguards, who were now looking for new jobs. The men descended the stairs and threw themselves straight at Crazy Dog Cole, who was carrying a machine gun in a violin case. They told Cole that Maranzano was already dead and beaten him before officers showed up. Cole talked and followed the killers from the building, receiving only $ 25,000 pay day without firing shots.

With Masseria and now Maranzano out of the way, five mob families have been able to move forward. However, Genovese, along with Anastasia, the crowd's most beloved killer, began scouting out of control.

First, Genovese's wife (unknown name) suddenly disappeared from the face of the earth. Word on the street was that Genovese killed his wife and made her body disappear, because he fell in love with a woman named Anna. The only problem was that Anna was already married to a man named Gerard Vernotico. This was only a small obstacle to Genovese, who killed Vernotico aboard and then married Anna two weeks later, on March 30, 1932.

In 1934, things began to fall apart at Genovese, when he was involved in an extortion plot. One of his conspirators in the plot was Ferdinand Boccia. Genoese, fearing that Boccia was a weak link and would click, killed Boccia himself. This would later return to persecution to Genovese.

In 1936, Special Prosecutor Thomas E. Dewey examined organized crime, and in particular Luciano and Genovese. After Luciano was convicted of a prostitution charge, allegedly orchestrated by Dewey himself, Luciano was sentenced to 30 to 50 years in prison. Before leaving for his time, Luciano named Genovese the head of Luciano's family. But in 1937 Genovese was charged with Bocci's murder, which had happened three years earlier. Instead of eating the same fate as his friend Luciano, Genovese fled to Sicily, a year after Genovese became an American naturalized citizen. As Genovese could not control the Luciano family, Luciano complained from prison that Frank Costello was now the head of the Luciano family.

While Genovese was in Sicily, he was indeed a very busy man. After allegedly taking $ 750,000 in cash with him, Genovese sent that money to work for him on the street. This was, of course, impossible without the friendship and cooperation of the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, who was intimately involved in the Second World War, as an enemy of the United States. Genovese paid for the construction of a Mussolini power plant in Nola, located in southern Italy. Genovese then gave $ 250,000 to build the municipal building Mussolini wanted to build. Whenever Genovese lacked cash, he contacted his wife, Anna, of America, who was engaged in Genovese's business operations while in his self-styled exile. During this time, Anna Genovese made frequent trips to Italy to refill her husband's coffee.

To show his gratitude to the greats of Genovese, Mussolini bestowed upon Genovese the Order of the Crown of Italy, a high civilian honor. And since one good turn deserves another, in 1943, Genovese staged a murder in New York City Mussolini by the namesake, editor of the Italian newspaper Carlo Tresa, who mixed pot against Mussolini in his radical Italian newspaper Il Martello, which was sold in Italian communities in America. The hit was allegedly made by oncoming mobster Carmine Galente, who shot Tresa in the back of the head as Tresa strolled along Fifth Avenue near 13th Street.

In 1944, Mussolini's empire collapsed. Seeing the manuscript on the wall, Genovese flipped through the pages and began working for the United States military, basically as an informant, which led the military to the collapse of black market operators Genovese works with. Soon it became wise for the military why Genovese was so willing to work with them. It seemed that every time the military closed down a black market operation that Genovese also ran, Don Vitone took over that operation.

As the war ended and all the witnesses against Genovese were either dead or missing, Genovese returned to the United States. Without evidence against Genovese, prosecutors simply dropped the Boccia case against him.

Genovese immediately tried to regain control of the Luciano family, but Costello, with the help of Lansky and Anastasia, was too firmly entrenched. So Genovese set aside his time. With his wife, he moved to a luxury home in Atlantic Highland, New Jersey, and found himself in the guise of a civilian-minded businessman who heavily donated to a number of charities, including scouts from America. In fact, Genovese was heavily involved in the narcotics business, gracing millions and collecting his war chests to fight for his return to the top.

Genovese had less difficulty when, in 1953, Anna Genovese, in claiming physical and emotional distress, sued Genovese for divorce. During the trial of their divorce, which was reported daily in the press, Anna Genovese said her husband had executed millions of dollars in European bills and raised between $ 20,000 and $ 30,000 a week from Italian lottery games. This caused much outrage among his mafia cohorts and delayed his planned coup for controlling mafia families.

Genovese waited until 1957 to carry out the attack. Since returning from Italy, Genovese has been estimated to have raised around $ 30 million in "toy money" through drug trafficking, Italian lotteries and his activities with corrupt unions, which he would invest in treason. The three main obstacles to accomplishing his mission of controlling the Mafia were Frank Costello, Albert Anastasia and Meyer Lansky. Since Lansky was Jewish and therefore had no right to be in the mafia, Genovese thought he would take Costello and Anastasia, Lansky would have no choice but to fall in line.

Genovese tried to grab the first bite of an apple when he sent stunned former boxer Vincent "The Chin" Gigante in 1957 to ambush Costello in the lobby of the Costello & # 39; s Avenue Avenue apartment building. He pointed Gigante with his gun and said, "This is for you, Frank!" But the Gigante shot fired Costello with only his head. An ambulance rushed to the hospital and Costello returned to his own bed the same night. True to the omerta code, when Gigante was captured and taken to court, Costello refused to identify Gigante as his assassination attempt.

Genovese's second moving line was more successful. On October 25, 1957, Genovese arranged for the murder of Anastasia, whom two men had filled with lead while sitting in a barber's chair at the Sheridan Park Hotel. Genovese originally gave the murder contract to his ally Joe Profaci, the head of one of the Mafia's five families, and Profaci allegedly subcontracted that he had hit the insane Joe Gallo with the Red Hook Brooklyn crew. Anastasia's murder was never solved and over the years several men have privately taken credit for the hit, including Gallo.

With Genovese still seeking his mafia takeover, Costello and Lansky, with the approval of Luciano, now expelled to Italy, devised a plan to expel Genovese from the commission forever without killing him. They enlisted the help of an aspiring mobster named Carlo Gambino, who himself sought to climb to the top. Gambino contacted Genovese about a proposed mutilating international drug deal that would make them a ton of money. Although Genovese banned narcotics in his crew, Don Vitone did not realize that the ban was being extended to him, so he greedily agreed. At the time, Gambino, though due to his faulty ties to the police, agreed to arrest Genovese on a drug conspiracy charge. However, the Fed needed proof before they could try and convict Genovese.

The handsome Gambino knew a convicted juvenile drug lord who was rotting in a Sing Sing prison named Nelson Cantellops. He approached Cantellops through a mediator and suggested that if Cantellops testify in court that he witnessed Genovese involved in several big money deals, Gambino would arrange for Cantellops to be paid an incredible sum of $ 100,000, probation and parole. To do this, Costello, Lansky and Luciano would contribute $ 50,000 and Gambino would invest the other $ 50,000.

Luciano later said of the stabbing: "We had to pay him (Cantellops) well."

Cantellops considered the proposal for about two seconds and agreed to receive the bribe.

An anonymous tip was then sent to the New York Narcotics Bureau, who said Cantellops would be willing to trade information about Genovese for its freedom. With Genovese being such a big fish and Cantellops barely enough, the government readily agreed.

In 1958, Genovese and twenty-four members of his crew were arrested for violating the new Narcotics Control Act.

In 1959, at the Genovese trial, Cantellops was a star witness for a full four weeks. Cantellops has sworn an oath that he has personally witnessed Genovese and his friends buy numerous drugs over the years. He also said he acted as a courier for Genovese for two years, carrying heroin from New York to various other cities across the country. Cantellops testified that on one occasion he was accompanied by Genovese at a meeting in the Bronx to discuss how to conduct territories selling heroin.

Based on the almost exclusively testimony of Nelson Cantellops, Genovese and all 24 of his colleagues were found guilty. Genovese was sentenced to 15 years in prison for serving time in the federal prison in Atlanta, Georgia.

While in prison, Genovese continued to run his criminal family through mediators. Mobster Joe Valachi later testified before the subcommittee of John L. McClellan that he became extremely paranoid at Genovese Prison because he knew he was framed. Genovese did not trust anyone, and even ordered the execution of his top aide Tony Bender, just because Bender, of course, was suspected of involvement in the plan.

In prison, Genovese developed nervous symptoms and severe heart problems. Vito Genovese died of a heart attack on February 14, 1969, while still in prison. He is buried in Saint John's Cemetery in Queens.

In the 1972 movie The Valachi Papers, starring Charles Bronson, Genovese was played by actor Lino Ventura. And in the 2001 TV movie The Boss, the role of Genovese was played by actor Steven Bauer.

Scouting movie locations from your Santa Barbara vacation

Santa Barbara vacationers are often curious about movie locations, and for good reason. There are plenty of iconic Santa Barbara locations that appear in movies and TV shows. Read on to find out why our fair city is the choice of choice for so many popular productions and how you can identify and visit famous filming locations in and around Santa Barbara.

A large number of visitors feel a strong sense of familiarity or belonging the first time they explore Santa Barbara. We will not discount the claims of psychic powers or past life that lived on the American Riviera to anyone, but it is likely that more than 200 different films and TV shows have been shot in whole or in part here in the last 100 years.

Do not leave your holiday vacation looking for locations known on the silver screen until you have read the full list of the Santa Barbara Film Commission. You've probably seen at least one or more of these popular productions:

2009. It's complicated

2006. Kirabi Pirates III

2006 There will be blood

2006 Psych

2006. Bachelor

2006 Best Chef 2, Bravo

2005 Monk

2005. Oprah Winfrey Show

2004. the flight of Phoenix

2004. Monster-in-Law

2004 Sideways

2003 Hidalgo

2003 Seabiscuit

Sorority 2003 Life

2001. X-files

2000 Bedazzled

1999. Double Danger

Star Trekking in 1998: Uprising

1996. Good night long kisses

1996 GI Jane

1996 Face / Off

1995 Nixon

1994. A Walk in the Clouds

1994 Congo

1994. Young Indy / Hollywood Follies

1993. Pelican Short

1990 Rocketeer

1984 Scarface

1980. The postman always rings twice

1978 The Frisco Kid

1967. Graduates

1964. Batman pilot

1923 The Ten Commandments

The 1914 Pauline couples

It's complicated

The latest high-profile movie to come out of our region was the romantic comedy by Meryl Streep and Alec Baldwin last year.

The film's director, Nancy Meyers, has chosen Santa Barbara for some reason that any tourist or home movie lover will be able to relate to. In an interview with Santa Barbara Magazine, Meyers said that "Santa Barbara felt right for so many reasons – natural beauty wherever you look, the state of mind I feel when I'm there, the serenity … I feel as close to a good life as you can get."

It Compitions is a wonderful movie that seems to portray its fair city to its best.

This is where the operative word seems. Most were recorded on a sound stage in Brooklyn in the middle of winter. Only three short scenes were actually shot here.

  • There is a scene where Jane runs through her Montecito neighborhood and her friend architect Adam gets in her car. It was actually filmed in her small town, as you can tell from the unique wooden street signs. If you want to take a walk in Janecim's Montecito shoes, stop by The Biltmore's The Four Seasons Resort, which may have been the inspiration for a hotel where Jane and her ex-husband had an abortion meeting.
  • When Jane is waiting for her therapist at the fictional Santa Barbara Medical Center, she is actually lurking at the back entrance of El Paseo to Anacapa Street, an open-air outdoor counter.
  • Although we have a dizzying array of Farmers Markets, one of Jane's stores is actually set up for her outside the 1920s Santa Barbara County Courtyard on Anapamu Street.

Unfortunately, there is no such place as Jane and a cute business bakery. The rally was built inside the Picnic House in Brooklyn. But hungry visitors will be able to find close facsimiles at Jeannine or Xanad (temporarily closed until April 2011 due to the fire) in Montecito or Downtown Renaud.

Off to the side

The Sideways wine tasting buddy picture was a sensation when it was released in 2004. Taken primarily in the nearby Santa Ynez Valley, it launched a whole new recognition for wines (just not Merlot!) From the area, and the cottage industry has grown. around people who wanted to follow in the footsteps of the film's questionable protagonists.

Fans of this movie are often looking for a "Sideways Map" to guide you through the car through movies. Many destinations even have a sideways logo. If you want to travel by bike, a Sideways bike map will help you find the pages.

At various locations in Santa Barbara

There are many local locations that appear in movies that are not even set in the area. This is because of the abundance of beautiful features in the area that blend so seamlessly with other locales.

  • Stearns Wharf is a 19th century landmark located at the bottom of State Street. It is the oldest operational dock on the West Coast and the second longest dock on the Pacific Coast, just under 2,000 meters long. In the 1940s actor James Cagney and his brothers were part owners of Stearns Wharf. He appeared in A Date with Judy and My Favorite Martian and the 1966 version of Batman. "Some days you just can't get rid of a bomb!"
  • State Street contains many famous landmarks. He has appeared in Cutter & # 39; s films Way and Steal Big, Steal a Little, among countless others.
  • Old Town Clock in State and Haley Streets is featured in the Pelican Brief.
  • Santa Barbara County Courthouse on Anacapa Street was also on Steal Big, Steal Little.
  • Santa Barbara Mission was at Sunset Boulevard and Cruel Intent 3.

Different locations in the Greater Santa Barbara area

There is so much more to this area than the pretty red rooftops downtown. One of the reasons why the region is so popular with filmmakers is its almost infinite variety.

  • Cold Spring Bridge – Steal Big, Steal A Little.
  • Lake Cachuma – The postman always rings twice
  • Gainey Vineyard – plaice and mice and men.
  • To downtown Los Olivos – Return to Mayberry.
  • Paradise Road – Seabed and Star Trails uprising.
  • Gaviota Coast – Spartan.
  • Gaviota Trestle – Mice and Men.
  • Gaviota Tunnel – pre-Bologna graduate thesis.
  • Dune Guadalupe – The Ten Commandments, Hidalgo, GI Jane, Pirates of the Caribbean III.
  • Santa Maria Airport – the rocks and the best years of our lives.
  • La Purisima Mission – plaice.
  • Jalam Road – A Walk in the Clouds.
  • Ranchland Surroundings – Mice and Men.

False Santa Barbara

Sometimes a production could be staged in Santa Barbara, but for whatever reason, they can't be filmed there. In that case, they can use several shots that establish the footage, such as the pier and the tower seen in the Psych TV series.

In the movie I Love You, a man is supposed to have a wedding scene at the fictional El Encanto Spa & Resort in Montecito. It was actually filmed at a private residence on the Pacific coast of the Pacific in Malibu. Sorry, the holiday concierge couldn't book you in El Encanto, but they will be able to find you a nice alternative!

Sometimes scenes with certain geographical freedoms are filmed. In Graduate City, the scene of Benjamin driving south to Santa Barbara shows his car going north through the Gaviota Tunnel, in the wrong direction. Not even the church he went to during his wedding was anywhere near it. It is actually located in La Verne, east of Los Angeles.

Television loves Santa Barbara

Moviemakers aren't the only people crazy about this space. Its glamor also awakens on the small screen. Countless TV shows were staged, had special episodes featured in, or did we just mention our name. There was even a nighttime drama in the 80s called Santa Barbara.

More recently, our fair city has been featured or mentioned in episodes of Gossip Girl, Entourage, Victorious, Beverly Hills 90210, The L Word, Baywatch, Melrose Place, Privileged, LA Law, Zorro, and Oceans Away.

Kind of Santa Barbara, but not really

Then there are the productions, which are located in places that sound and look suspiciously like our beautiful city, but never openly established as such. The Buffy the Vampire Slayer television show is a classic example.

Buffy's hometown of Sunnydale is described as a coastal town, two hours north of Beverly Hills – check. Both cities are homes for a campus affiliate at the University of California. Sunnydale's architecture looks very familiar. Both cities are located in the Pacific Ocean, and were devastated by earthquakes between the two world wars. Sunnydale has also been described as the home of the Chumash tribe, who were natives of Santa Barbara and Ventura counties, and many of the show's recordings of the show were … you guessed it.

Most convincing of all is the fact that on several occasions during his seven-year run, the characters used maps of Sunnydale that are actually … Santa Barbara. Now we want to reassure anyone who is vacationing that there is no such thing as hell lurking under our utopian city. But you might want to bring a garlic necklace if you plan on wandering a lot after sunset.

100 years of history in Santa Barbara movies

2010 marks the 100th anniversary of a vibrant and successful film presence in Santa Barbara. Beginning in 1910, Essanay Film Company came regularly from Chicago in search of better weather and convenient locations to shoot their very popular Western genre films. They were followed in July 1912 by the permanent western branch of the Flying "A" studios, which also sought better weather and relief from the Edison Trust's sidewalk to the east. They chose our city because they could find both urban and rural locations so close to hand.

The flying "A" took a big hit due to the combined effects of World War I, the flu pandemic and the onset of the Great Depression. But we are already well established as the shooting location of choice. In 1923, Cecil B. DeMille recorded the Ten Commandments on the landscapes of Guadalupe (also used in the Pirates of the Caribbean III), and again brought us back to the movie avant-garde.

The rest, as they say, is history.

Next time comes from Santa Barbara

The entertainment industry is alive and well here. Last June, the cast and crew of a new movie called No Strings Attached opened a store at All Saints-by-the-Sea Episcopal Church and The Four Seasons Resort The Biltmore. Billed as a romantic comedy, the movie stars Natalie Portman and Ashton Kutcher, and is slated to release on January 21, 2011.

There are many well-known shooting locations to visit. If you want to explore on your own, SantaBarbara.com offers three different itineraries to guide you through the area, searching through locations from some of your favorite high-end movies. And when you're done for the day, you'll have a Santa Barbara vacation rental to get back home, living a life that movie stars envy.

What's the difference between a theme park and an amusement park?

Is Disney World a theme park or amusement park? What about Cedar Point? Is there really a difference or are these two concepts the same thing? Does that have anything to do with it? Well, it may not be as important as some things out there, but to park and amusement park lovers this will seem interesting, if not important. There is a lot of confusion and misinformation out there. So, I thought I'd take the opportunity of this article to clear up some of the confusion.

Amusement parks

Let's start by defining the term "Amusement Park" because amusement parks first appeared on the scene. By most definitions, an amusement park has existed for hundreds of years, dating back to the 16th century. It can be defined as a fixed location where numerous rides and attractions come together to entertain people. Simple enough.

Over the years, however, the definition of an amusement park has been eclipsed by changes in driving design, the invention of cars and the mass media, and the need for entertainment to meet or exceed the expectations of its audience. These changes have caused the upgrades and innovations of some parks, bankruptcies and closures with many others. But one thing has remained consistent, and the parks themselves have always been a collection of attractions, no matter how messy or tacky the collection may look. Great examples of this are Coney Island in Brooklyn or Riverview Park in Chicago … which do not exist today by the way.

Theme parks

Although debatable when a "theme park" was introduced, most experts believe Walt Disney was its inventor. Disney, however, was heavily influenced by Knott Berry Farm and amusement parks in Europe. So you could argue that Knott Berry Farm was the first theme park, but it certainly took the Walt Disney theme park to a whole new level. So what distinguishes a theme park from an amusement park?

A true theme park consists of different theme countries or regions. Great efforts are being made to create the illusion of another world or culture using the landscape, architecture, music, food, employees and attractions. In a theme park, rides often rank second in the environment they are in. The more the park can take its guests from the "real world" to the fantasy world, the more true it becomes the "theme" label. . Because Walt Disney used film directors instead of architects to design his park, he was able to create a true escape from reality, as if the theme park was a movie on film screen.

Theme parks take theme parks to a whole new level

With the opening of Walt Disney World in Florida in 1971, the next step in the theme park's evolution took place. Beyond the rides and attractions at Walt Disney World, Disney combined a theme park with hotels, golf courses, water recreation and (eventually) more theme parks. We like to call it "Theme Resort".

The idea behind a theme resort is to attract guests and then keep them on their property for whatever they could ever want or imagine. It is entirely possible, with the advent of Disney's Wide World of Sports – fishing, water and field sports and tournament opportunities – that almost everything that could be done on vacation can now be found in one location. The themed resort has become a unique, all-inclusive dream vacation store, and the numbers prove that Disney’s idea is the right kind of thinking. Disney is not alone in this market. Universal Studios in Orlando consists of two separate theme parks, a hotel and a dining room to create the Orlando Universal Resort. Disney learned in the 80s that keeping people close was the key to profit and that certainly proves true.

Final thoughts

It is easy to become frustrated with the comparisons that are usually made between amusement parks and theme parks, though such comparisons should by definition not be made. When someone says "I think Cedar Point is a much better amusement park than Disney World," they correct themselves in a sense because Walt Disney World is not an amusement park and will never pretend to be a roller coaster enthusiast & # 39; the sky is at the same time, however, they also make mistakes because they compare apples and oranges. To make things even more confusing, Cedar Point will sometimes be called a theme park simply because it gives designations to different parts of the park. Sorry Cedar Point. Shooting is more than just a sticker.

So, the next time someone says they enjoyed Dollywood or Six Flags much more than Disney World, don't bother discussing it. I can also say that they enjoy sushi more than cycling.

Mobsters – Big Bill Dwyer – King of the Rum Runners

He started out as a simple doctor worker, greatly magnified himself in bullying, and was also known as the "King of the Ruma Runners." Big Bill Dwyer made so much money, he partnered with famous gangsters at several New York nightclubs. Dwyer also owned two professional hockey teams, including the New York Americans, and he owned the Brooklyn Dodgers football team. However, in the end, when Big Bill Dwyer passed away, he died in the middle of the light and the apartment broke.

William Vincent Dwyer was born in 1883 in the Hells Kitchen area on the west side of New York. Two gangs, the Hudson Dusters and the Gophers, ruled the hellish kitchen at the time, but Dwyer avoided joining both gangs and instead took a job at the docks as stevedores for International Debt Debt (ILU). ).

While working on the docks, Dwyer started his own bookmaking operation. After the Volstead Act was passed in 1919, prohibiting the distribution of alcohol, with the money he earned from bookmakers, Dwyer branched out into the bookmaker business. Dwyer bought a fleet of steel speedboats, each with a machine gun mounted, in case thieves try to hijack the shipment. Dwyer also purchased several large rum launch ships that were needed to get the illegal hull off any ship that supplies it.

Dwyer traveled to Canada, England and the Caribbean to make connections with those who sold him the alcohol he needed to smuggle into the US. Then Dwyer established a system whereby his ships would meet ships that supplied him with alcohol, many miles in the sea. There, the market was transferred to the Dwyer ships and then quickly transported to the Dwyer speedboats, which were closer to the New York coast.

The cast landed at the docks, protected by Local 791 of the ILU, of which Dwyer was a charter member. With the dock, alcohol was moved to several warehouses in the New York area. When the time came, trucks beaten with illegal alcohol and protected by convoys of team members transported loot across the country: with heavy shipments moving to Florida, St. Louis, Kansas City, Cincinnati and beyond as New Orleans.

Dwyer was able to smuggle large quantities of liquor into New York City because he knew one simple fact: you had to bribe the police and the Coast Guard if you wanted to be successful in starting a car. And so did Dwyer, handing out thousands of dollars to the one who needed to be greased.

Paying off New York City police officers was easy. Officers who did not have a hand for the vaccination money were among only a few. However, Dwyer was particularly adept at hiring Coast Guard members to look the other way when his speedboats entered New York waters.

Dwyer's first contact was a petty Olsen Coast Guard officer. Across Olsen, Dwyer met a bunch of coast guards, the "Guard" called them, who might be willing to receive a bribe. Dwyer would bring these Guardians into the bright lights of New York, where they would be fed lavish meals, taken to Broadway shows and even brought them a light hotel room, occupied by a lady of their choice, for which Dwyer would also pay. Once Guardie received a bribe from Dwyer, he was informed that he could earn hundreds, and sometimes thousands, of dollars more if he could enlist other Guardies to help protect Dwyer's shipments.

Soon Dwyer made so much money through rebellion, which was considered the largest distributor of illegal alcohol in the entire United States. However, Dwyer did have one huge problem, which he needed help solving. Whenever one of his trucks left New York to distribute liquor to other parts of the country, they were vulnerable to being caught by hundreds of hijackers operating across the country. Dwyer knew how to prevent this from happening, which he had to do with partners – members of the Italian Mafia and the Jewish Mafia. Being made in the millions of earnings, Dwyer didn't mind and could certainly afford to share the fortune. The problem was that Dwyer considered himself only a businessman and not even a gangster. Dwyer needed someone from the underworld who could make contacts Dwyer needed to continue acting without fear of being abducted.

Almost by accident, that person fell straight into Dwyer's lap. In 1924, two stolen Dwyer shipments were hijacked in federal New York. Dwyer leaned on the cops on his payroll to find out who was responsible for the abductions. Word soon returned to Dwyer that the perpetrator, who was arrested for the abductions, was none other than Owney Madden, an Irishman who grew up in Liverpool, England, before emigrating to New York. Madden was known as "The Slayer" and once ruled the Gopher killer gang in the kitchen of Hell.

Dwyer paid whoever he had to pay to get the charges dropped against Madden, with the command, "Call me, Owney Madden. I want to talk to him. I have a business proposal we need to talk about."

Madden has received news of who his benefactor is and in return is expected to meet with Dwyer. The two men met at Dwyer's office in Loew's State Building in Times Square. There is no recording or transcript of this meeting, but TJ English, in his masterpiece on Irish gangsters called Paddy Whacked, said the conversation between Madden and Dwyer may have gone something like this:

"You have a problem," Madden would tell Dwyer. "Gangsters steal your trucks like sitting ducks and what are you going to do about it?"

"That's why I called you here."

"You have to organize the shooters and the cherry pickers, not to mention the bulls (cops) and half-beaters (politicians)."

"You're right. I need kidnappings to stop. I need a place to grow my own here in town. Tiger and copper are protected. And I need places – booths, nightclubs, name it."

"You need a lot, my friend.

"Are you with me?"

"Give me one reason why."

"I can make you rich."

"Pal, you and I are two peas in a pod."

And that was the start of the New York Mafia Irish, who would then unite with the Italian and Jewish mafia to control the bookmaking business across the United States. The grouping of three ethnic mafias was known as the "Combination."

With millions of Dwyer, Madden oversaw the creation of the Phoenix beverage company, located at 26th Street and 10th Avenue, right in the heart of Hell's Kitchen, where both Madden and Dwyer grew up. This red-brick building, which consisted of a whole block, was originally a Clausen & Flanagan brewery, created to produce and sell beers in the vicinity, which no true beer drinker would ever let go of. The beer made in Phoenix was called Madden No1.

With Dwyer basically behind-the-scenes money, Madden became the architect who created and nurtured their empire. Madden brought in a former taxi company owner named Larry Fay as the head of several high-end establishments that were needed to sell Madden no. 1, plus all the whiskey, rum, vodka, cognac and champagne smuggled into town by the Combine. One such place was El Fay at 107 Street, West 54th Street.

The main attraction on El Fay was Texas Guinan, a cheeky cabaret / comedy singer, later copied by May West. To get Guinan to work in El Fay, Madden and Dwyer made Guinan a partner. Guinan was known for her sages, who were torn between a rocking chair or a rocking chair while she sat in a high chair in the main room. Guinana's signature banner was "Hello Sucker", thus welcoming all well-heeled El Fay customers.

When the singer or dancer completed their performance in El Fey, Guinan would persuade the assembled to "give the little lady a big hand!"

One day, a restraining agent, unable to buy Madden or Dwyer, attacked El Fey. He approached Guinan, put her hand on her shoulder, and told his fellow agent, "Give the little lady a big fox."

Dwyer did the best he could, Guinan was released from prison, and El Fey soon jumped again, making everyone involved truly rich.

Madden and Dwyer also partnered with former bookmaker Sherman Billingsley at the very modern Stork Club on East 53rd Street. Two Irish gangsters spread their wings to the north of Manhattan when they bought Club De Luxe from former heavyweight boxing champion Jack Johnson. They have invested Big Frenchy De Mange as their operating partner and changed their name to Cotton Club. At Cotton Club, De Mange established a Whites Only acceptance policy, despite the fact that waiters, dancers and head entertainers, such as Cab Calloway, Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, Lena Horne, Bill "Bojangles" Robinson, and Nicholas Brothers, were are all black.

Still, the Cotton Club has had great success with big expenses from downtown, putting a ton of money into the pockets of Dwyer and Madden.

Dwyer was arrested in 1925 for attempting to bribe a Coast Guard officer during a coup strike led by the Prohibition Bureau. Dwyer was sentenced to two years in prison but released after 13 months for good behavior. With Dwyer in the can, Frank Costello took over Dwyer with the bookies.

While in prison, a desperate Dwyer told one of his friends in a cell. "I wish I had never seen a case of whiskey. I spent years in my daily fears for my life, always expecting to be arrested, always dealing with fraud and double canopy, and now look at me. My wife is heartbroken and I'm up than cracked. "

As we shall see, this was not exactly true.

When Dwyer took to the streets again, he quit the blow job, leaving the Romanian operation to Costello and Madden. To pass his time, Dwyer began investing in legitimate businesses, especially sports teams.

In 1926, boxing promoter Tex Rickard tricked Dwyer into buying the National Hockey League's Hamilton Tigers. Dwyer did so and he moved his team to the New York Madison Square Garden and renamed them New York Americans. As smart as Dwyer ran the boat, he is just as stupid in managing the hockey team. His pockets cracked with little money, Dwyer's winning strategy was basically overpaying everyone on his team. With an average hockey player earning between $ 1,500 and $ 2,000 a year, Dwyer gave Billy Burc a three-year, $ 25,000 contract. Shorty Green also received a huge raise when Dwyer awarded him a $ 5,000 a year contract.

Being an old rogue at heart, Dwyer took an active part in managing his team, even going so far as to try and set up games. Dwyer paid the umpires to the goalkeepers to rule that his team scored if it touched the goal line instead of switching the goal line completely, which is the rule.

At the 1927 match at Madison Square Garden, the goaltender judge, who had Dwyer in his pocket, began mocking Ottawa goalie Alex Connel for some unknown reason. Connell responded by ending his hockey stick in the referee's naked nose. Dwyer became enraged at the goalkeeper's actions in Ottawa (you do not manage one of Dwyer's employees), and Connell was told to quickly leave town after the game. A police detail took Connel to the train station and protected him until the train was safely out of town. After the train left the station, the man asked Connel if he was Ottawa goalie Alex Connell. Connell feared for his life and told the stranger no. And as a result, the goalie of other hockey games lived.

Bypassing the league rule that a man cannot own two hockey teams, in 1929, Dwyer, using former lightweight boxing champion Benny Leonard as front man, purchased the NHL Pittsburgh Pirates. In 1930, Dwyer also inserted his skinny fingers into the newly formed National Football League by buying Dayton Triangles for $ 2,500. Dwyer moved the team to Ebbets Field in Brooklyn and renamed them the Brooklyn Dodgers.

In three years, Dwyer, once again overpaying all his players, began to lose so much money, he sold the Brooklyn Dodgers to two former New York Giants football players, Chris Cagle and John Simms, for $ 25,000. Although the team sold 10 times what it paid, Dwyer estimated that in the three years that the team had lost $ 30,000.

In 1934, fulfilling American sports teams (he still owned New York Americans, but they were bleeding money), Dwyer bought the famous tropical equestrian trail in Miami, Florida.

However, the roof fell on Dwyer when he was charged with gambling in 1935. Dwyer beat the case, but then the government did to him what they did to Al Capone: they hit him with tax evasion charges. Those charges remained, and all property was confiscated from Dwyer, except New York Americans, and homes in Belle Harbor, Queens. With almost no money, Dwyer no longer had the money to keep New York's Americans on the air.

1937 The National Hockey League temporarily seizes control of New York Americans. To show the NHL it was financially solvent, Dwyer borrowed $ 20,000 from Red Dutton. However, instead of paying salaries to his team, Dwyer decided to try to multiply his money in a nonsense game. That wasn't too good when Dwyer ran out and lost the whole twenty thousand. Failing to pay for his team and failing to raise more capital, the NHL permanently abandoned Dwyer and took final control of the New Yorkers. Broken and desperate, Dwyer retired to his home in Port Belle.

On December 10, 1943, Big Bill Dwyer, "King of the Ruma Runners," died at the age of 63. Dwyer was reportedly out of money at the time of his death, and his only fortune was a roof over his head.

Harry's murder

He was a mafia insider whose ex-friend Louie "Lepke" Buchalter "decided he knew too much to live in. As a result, Harry" Big Greenie "Greenberg fell victim to the first mafia attack ever in sunny California.

Harry Greenberg, who also went by the names Harry Schacter and Harry Schober, grew up in lower eastern Manhattan along with Lepke and Lepke's longtime partner Jacob "Gurrah" Shapiro, affectionately known as "Gorilla Boys," and then, as they became more prosperous, the "Golden Dust Twins." Greenberg was close to the two murderers, and was a partner in various dressing and scamming businesses. he must have known about the killings and why they were committed. Maybe Greenberg even knew who committed those murders. It turned out to be not such a good thing in the evil world of Louis "Lepke" Buchalter.

Greenberg hung out with Lepke and Shapiro and spent most of the summer with them at Loch Sheldrake Village Club in Catskills, New York, owned by legal businessman Sam Tannenbaum. Tannenbaum himself had a son, a teenager, Allie, who worked at the hotel, either waiting tables or setting up chairs on the beach by the lake. Sam hoped that Allie would be his successor at the hotel when Sam decided to retire, but Allie was destined for bigger and better things.

Or so Allie thought.

In the late summer of 1931, Tannenbaum was walking Broadway in Manhattan when he ran into Greenberg.

Greenberg asked Tannenbaum, "Do you want a job?"

"I could use it, if it pays off," Tannenbaum said.

Greenberg smiled. "This one's for Lepke. You know what the job will be."

Greenberg inadvertently just helped hire one of his killers.

As time went on, Tannenbaum was climbing the ranks in Lepke's "Murder Incorporated," which was an affiliate of mobsters whose sole purpose was to kill anyone who is top mafia bosses in New York, and later mafia bosses throughout. America, she said she should be killed.

Things began to go south for Lepke when, in 1936, Special Prosecutor Thomas E. Dewey, who was already in prison for the 30-year sentence of Lucky Lucian, Lepke's partner with the National Crime Syndicate, was jailed for 30 years. directly to Adhesives. Dewey took care of the rackets for Lepke's clothes, and Lepke's earthquake "Baker's Union." However, these scams were a small potato compared to what Dewey really had in mind for the Leps. Convicted drug dealers have always spent considerable time in prison, so Dewey persuaded the Federal Narcotics Bureau to launch a case against Lepke, in a massive drug smuggling operation. Realizing he was facing a big time, Lepke headed for the goal. Lepke was hidden in several Brooklyn hiding places by his co-director, Murder Incorporated Albert Anastasia, while Lepke's rackets were held by other Union leaders.

While Lepke was hiding, he began to think about who knew enough about his rackets, to put Lepke in jail for a very long, if not straight, electric chair. Lepke told all his murderers and everyone in the know to "Either get out of town or die." Lepke's thinking was that if any of his men were arrested, he could get mad at him to get the best deal for himself. It turned out that Lepke was right about that, which is why in the spring of 1939, Lepke sent a message to "Big Greenie" Greenberg to escort him out of town.

Greenberg took Lepke's "advice" to his heart and put it up to Montreal, Canada. While I was in Montreal, Greenberg was thinking, "Hey, I'm up here in Canada, and I can't even make decent money. These guys better start taking care of me."

As a result, "Big Greenie" Greenberg did something very stupid. He sent a letter to Mendy Weiss, who was Lepke's second in command at Murder Inc., saying, "I hope you guys don't forget about me. You better not." He then asked Weiss a reported $ 5,000 to help him fight the cold weather in Canada.

Greenberg was waiting for an answer, or money, or both. When he got none, he thought again. "Hey, maybe sending that letter wasn't such a great idea."

By this point, after hanging out with Lepke, Weiss had already ordered Tannenbaum to go to Canada and remove Big Greenie from Lepke's "people to worry about" list. But when Tannenbaum arrived in Montreal, Big Greenie had already flown a plane and was officially a "lamer", not only from the law, but also from guys he thought were his best friends.

Greenberg figured they would take this all the way to Detroit, where the Purple Gang, another affiliate of the National Crime Syndicate, might be nice enough to invest a few bucks for him, and maybe even give Greenberg a safe place to hide. The purple gang, run by Sammy Coen, whose nickname was Sammy Purple, was very handsome to Greenberg; too green thought Greenberg While waiting for some money from the cast, Big Greenie started thinking again and the idea came to him that the Purple Gang had delayed him so that the New York killers could travel there to do big work on Big Green.

"They must have checked the New York office," Greenberg mused. "The New York guys certainly told them that, and hold it until we bring some boys upstairs. & # 39;"

Greenberg was right. Tannenbaum and two other guns were heading for Detroit at exactly the right time when Greenberg decided to seek the advice of Horace Greeley and "Go Western Young."

Greenberg went as far west as possible without swimming, stopping in Hollywood, California, the new hometown of Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel, the top boss of Murder Incorporated, and one of the few killers who thoroughly enjoyed doing his job.

Siegel was sent from California in 1937 by the National Crime Syndicate to take control of all illegal activity in the state, which the East Coast mafia considered a virgin territory. After organizing union gambling interests, Siegel decided that he would make big money by joining Hollywood extras.

You could have the biggest movie stars, the best screenplays and top producers and directors, but without the accessories, most movies could never be made. So Siegel unionized the extras and collected tidy sums from each of them for the privilege of appearing, if only for a few seconds, in a Hollywood production. Siegel even became an additional movie.

However, it was a big change from what Siegel really had in mind.

Tall and Hollywood handsome, Siegel plunged into the upper reaches of the Hollywood elite. He dated two starlets, and even had a hot and heavy affair with the Italian Countess. The top actors and actresses of the time were Siegel's best friends, but they quickly learned that being friends with a man known as Bugsy (no one ever called him "Bugsy" in the face) was an easy way to set up a huge dent in your bank account.

Using the same technique he learned from Lepke in the unions, Siegel approached the biggest stars with his smooth sample line. He would romanticize female stars and then scare them with his reputation and a few pointed words. But with male stars, Siegel got right to the point

With a notebook and a pen in Siegel's hands, the conversation would go like this: "Hey, look, man, I'm giving you $ 10,000 for an extra."

"What's the deal?" the actor would protest. "What do I have to do with accessories?"

Siegel would then shake his head, like a father indignant at an unknown child. "I don't think you understand. For example, take a picture of your new picture. Every thing is ready to go. But what happens if the extras strike? This means that the stages also strike because everyone is united. So there's your picture. . "

Without blinking, every Hollywood star Siegel, without exception, came and paid well. In 1940, when the Fed received a warrant for Siegel's Thirty-Fifth Hall Holmby Hill & # 39; s, they found in a safe place a detailed account of the "credit" Siegel received for all top Hollywood names. In just one year, Bugsy Siegel upset actors and actresses to the tune of $ 400,000. And no one complained to the cops. These scared Hollywood suckers even got away with Siegel as he thrust his hands deep into their pockets.

So when word came from the West East that Greenberg was in Hollywood, of course Siegel got a contract. Now, usually the stature man of Siegel would simply issue orders and perhaps help with the planning. But Siegel, against Lepke's advice, insisted on embarking on the actual Greenberg murder.

Bugsy simply liked a good kill.

"We all begged Bugsy to stay away from the shooting," Lepke's Dr. Stracher said years later. "He was too big a man by this point to get involved personally. But Bugsy wouldn't listen. He said Greenberg was a threat to all of us and had been grabbed by cops, he could tell the whole story of our clothes by the 1920s."

At Newark Airport, just before he boarded Hollywood, Tannenbaum gave the boss of an instrument bag the New Jersey boss himself sent: Abner "Longie" Zwillman. Inside this bag were several "clean" rifles, which were to be used at Hollywood's Greenberg Café.

Meanwhile, Siegel was assembling his "hit team," which included Whitey Krakow, Siegel's son-in-law from New York, and Frankie Carbo, a thief from the lower east and operator of Murder Inc., who had already been arrested 17 times and charged with five murders, but none of the charges resulted in Carbo spending significant time in jail. Carbo was also a big fight promoter and manager, and many of his top fighters are suspected of not making the most of their efforts when their boss and his friends placed themselves on another man.

Now the question came about getting a getaway car.

Solem Bernstein, an independent operator from New York, was just vacationing in Hollywood when he decided to visit his old friend Benny Siegel. Soon Bernstein will be sorry that he ever made that visit.

Before the conversation even began, Siegel went over the matter.

"Trim the car," Siegel barked at Bernstein. "Leave it in the parking lot down the street."

Bernstein, a veteran in this matter, seemed confused. Usually, when he clipped his car, he hid it in a private garage, where police couldn't see it.

"Parking?" Bernstein said.

"That's right," Siegel replied. "Just do as I said?"

So Bernstein clipped the car and parked it in the open parking lot, just as Siegel had requested. Almost immediately, the owner of the stolen car filed a police report. As they were searching for the stolen car, officers spotted it outdoors and returned it to its rightful owner.

Despite this accident, Siegel told Bernstein to take off another car. Bernstein said he would, and he even told Siegel how he usually operated. "Then you remove the license plates from another car that you happen to see the owner use only once, like a Sunday driver," Bernstein said. "When the guy finds out, you're done and the cops are looking for him – why are his plates on the hit car. Then you …"

Siegel interrupted Bernstein in the middle of the sentence.

The veins sticking in his neck, Siegel said, "Who the hell are you coming in and telling me how to do a job? It's going my way here. And don't forget it."

Although Bernstein was in Hollywood on vacation, the rules of the mob were when the mob boss tells you to do something, do it, or you're dead. But Bernstein realized, when he returned to New York City and asked to do the job, the mob bosses, because Bernstein was a capable freelancer, let him handle things his own way. Now, since Siegel dictated terms, Bernstein felt he had no obligation to continue the business. So Bernstein got in his car and headed for New York, which didn't end Siegel all the way and made him find someone to steal a car for Greenberg. Furious, Siegel now wanted Bernstein dead.

But about that later.

By this point, surveillance of the Greenberg residence at 1804 N. Vista De Mar Drive had revealed that Greenberg was little more than a desert. He never left home except for a 15-minute night drive each time to get a newspaper in nearby Bel Air. Greenberg told his wife that a small night out "prevented him from rising."

On the night of November 22, 1939, on Thanksgiving, armed gunmen blew him Goldstein.

Immediately after dark, Tamanbaum picked up the stolen car from the parking lot. He then drove Siegel and Carbo to Siegel's home to retrieve Siegel's Cadillac, which was to be used as a car in a collision in case police or stray passersby decided to chase them after the act was done. The two cars, with Carb in Siegel's car, then drove to the site of several houses below Greenberg's residence. They watched as a few hours later, Greenberg got out of his house, looked closely both times (missing two parked cars down the block), got into his car and ran away. Carbo then got out of Siegel's car, ran down the block and hid in the bushes near Greenberg's house.

Like clockwise, just over 30 minutes later, Greenberg turned onto Yucca Street and headed toward 1804 N. Vista De Mar Drive. Greenberg's car passed two parked cars, but both Tannenbaum and Siegel sat in their seats so they couldn't be seen. Fluttering a second later, Tannenbaum flashed his headlights, only for a moment, alerting Carb, who was waiting for his wings ready to exit the stage straight to the scene. While Greenberg was trying to get out of his car, Carbo walked out of the shadows and shot five bullets into Greenberg's head.

Then Carbo ran back to the stolen car and jumped past Tannenbaum. Tannenbaum stormed off, and Siegel ended in his downfall of the Cadillac immediately afterwards. (The colliding car was always a legal registered car, so that after the collision, either with a police car or with a civilian civilian car, he could claim that he had just lost control of his car.) a certain place where they met another co-conspirator who was waiting in a third car. Chapter three turned out to be Champ Segal, a juvenile criminal who was always willing to help the big guys with anything. Segal immediately took Tannenbaum to San Francisco, where, after completing the mission, Tannenbaum jumped a plane east.

Still, Siegel had a stone in his shoes and that stone was named Sholem Bernstein.

There was a system that existed with the National Crime Commission for Dispute Resolution. Bernstein could not touch Siegel unless Siegel had the permission of the chief of Bernstein's territory of New York. The bosses of New York City considered Bernstein one of their best men and they refused to hurt the hair on their heads. But Siegel was hesitant that Bernstein had to die, so this forced Siegel to fly to New York City to pledge his death sentence for Bernstein in his case.

The National Crime Commission is proud of its internal justice system. Any person targeted by death is allowed to plead in a kangaroo court, usually by someone in the organization. The man who took Bernstein's part was none other than Abe Reles, who had not yet turned canary and was still very much alive. As it turned out when he took a stand against his old friends, Reles had a way with words, and he could be very convincing when his urge came, which was quite common given his career.

The sitting took place in a downtown hotel room, with a nine-member council deciding the fate of Bernstein, for whom no appeal was possible. Siegel first pleaded his case, firmly saying that Bernstein was at work, and not only did he not violate direct orders, but left the scene before his job was completed. Siegel pointed out that the punishment for that was death. Period

Now it was Reles & # 39; turn away.

Reles began by saying he did not call witnesses. He also admitted that his client – Bernstein – had indeed fled California before he was able to steal a much needed second car for murder. And then Reles explained why his client was completely innocent of all the charges.

Reles told the panel: "The same day Ben gave him the contract, Sholem received a message from New York that his mom would make money. Sholem is a good boy. Mom is dying; he thinks he should go there. You know how mom is "It's easier for her boyfriend to sit by the bed and say nice things – like he loves her and she gets better and better."

"So Sholem doesn't think of a contract either. He doesn't think of anything. Get out of LA and rush home to be with his mother when she leaves. He drives day and night. He drives everything he wants to keep. He's a good boy."

Reles & # 39; he raised his chin in the air and raised his voice an octave. "And these gentlemen," he said, "that's why Sholem left town. Not to cancel the contract. But because of the bill, his mom starts."

When Reles finished, there was no dry eye in the room; not even Siegel. Bernstein was unanimously released, and Ben Siegel flew back to California, only for his own murder contract to be approved by the National Crime Syndicate, and executed briefly, on June 20, 1947.